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Gruchy S.R.,Mississippi Fish and Wildlife Foundation | Grebner D.L.,Mississippi State University | Munn I.A.,Mississippi State University | Joshi O.,Mississippi State University | Hussain A.,The Wilderness Society
Forest Policy and Economics

The economic feasibility of utilizing woody biomass to produce biofuel lies in the willingness to harvest by non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners, who control 71% of forestland in the southern United States. A mail survey was distributed to NIPF landowners throughout Mississippi to elicit their preferences concerning the utilization of logging residues from harvesting operations to produce bioenergy. When presented with hypothetical situations that compared the bioenergy utilization harvesting attributes along with those of standard clearcutting in pine plantations, more landowners preferred those associated with the bioenergy utilization scenarios, even when more money was offered for the standard clearcutting option. Older landowners with larger landholdings were less likely to prefer the bioenergy scenarios. Landowners with more formal education who were financially motivated, considered habitat management an important goal, and thought global climate change was an important issue, were more likely to prefer the bioenergy utilization scenario over the standard clearcut. This indicates that a market for logging residues, in the form of wood-based bioenergy, could increase NIPF landowner harvest rates based solely on the different harvesting attributes, and that most woody biomass feedstocks from pine plantations would be available for the production of bioenergy in Mississippi. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hutto R.L.,University of Montana | Belote R.T.,The Wilderness Society
Forest Ecology and Management

We describe and label four types of monitoring-surveillance, implementation, effectiveness, and ecological effects-that are designed to answer very different questions and achieve very different goals. Surveillance monitoring is designed to uncover change in target variables over space and time; implementation monitoring is designed to record whether management actions were applied as prescribed; effectiveness monitoring is designed to evaluate whether a given management action was effective in meeting a stated management objective; and ecological effects monitoring is designed to uncover unintended ecological consequences of management actions. Public land management agencies have focused heavily on implementation and effectiveness monitoring and very little on the more ecologically oriented surveillance and ecological effects monitoring. Tradeoffs, in the form of unintended ecological consequences, are important to consider in the management of natural resources, yet lack of ecological effects monitoring data has hindered our ability to fully understand these tradeoffs. Our proposed monitoring classification scheme offers practitioners and stakeholders a framework that explicitly identifies the type of monitoring they are conducting. We also suggest that, as a start, the effectiveness and ecological effects of a particular type of management activity can be approached rapidly and relatively inexpensively through use of a chronosequence approach to learning. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ingerson A.,The Wilderness Society
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Within national greenhouse gas inventories, many countries now use widely-accepted methodologies to track carbon that continues to be stored in wood products and landfills after its removal from the forest. Beyond simply tracking post-harvest wood carbon, expansion of this pool has further been suggested as a potential climate change mitigation strategy. This paper summarizes data on the fate of carbon through the wood processing chain and on greenhouse gas emissions generated by processing, transport, use and disposal of wood. As a result of wood waste and decomposition, the carbon stored long-term in harvested wood products may be a small proportion of that originally stored in the standing trees-across the United States approximately 1% may remain in products in-use and 13% in landfills at 100 years post-harvest. Related processing and transport emissions may in some cases approach the amount of CO2e stored in long-lived solid wood products. Policies that promote wood product carbon storage as a climate mitigation strategy must assess full life-cycle impacts, address accounting uncertainties, and balance multiple public values derived from forests. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Burkle L.A.,Montana State University | Myers J.A.,Washington University in St. Louis | Travis Belote R.,The Wilderness Society
American Journal of Botany

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Geographic patterns of biodiversity have long inspired interest in processes that shape the assembly, diversity, and dynamics of communities at different spatial scales. To study mechanisms of community assembly, ecologists often compare spatial variation in community composition (beta-diversity) across environmental and spatial gradients. These same patterns inspired evolutionary biologists to investigate how micro- and macro-evolutionary processes create gradients in biodiversity. Central to these perspectives are species interactions, which contribute to community assembly and geographic variation in evolutionary processes. However, studies of beta-diversity have predominantly focused on single trophic levels, resulting in gaps in our understanding of variation in species-interaction networks (interaction beta-diversity), especially at scales most relevant to evolutionary studies of geographic variation. METHODS: We outline two challenges and their consequences in scaling-up studies of interaction beta-diversity from local to biogeographic scales using plant-pollinator interactions as a model system in ecology, evolution, and conservation. KEY RESULTS: First, we highlight how variation in regional species pools may contribute to variation in interaction beta-diversity among biogeographic regions with dissimilar evolutionary history. Second, we highlight how pollinator behavior (host-switching) links ecological networks to geographic patterns of plant-pollinator interactions and evolutionary processes. Third, we outline key unanswered questions regarding the role of geographic variation in plant-pollinator interactions for conservation and ecosystem services (pollination) in changing environments. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the largest advances in the burgeoning field of interaction beta-diversity will come from studies that integrate frameworks in ecology, evolution, and conservation to understand the causes and consequences of interaction beta-diversity across scales. © 2016 Botanical Society of America. Source

Dean C.,University of Sydney | Dean C.,Curtin University Australia | Fitzgerald N.B.,The Wilderness Society | Wardell-Johnson G.W.,Curtin University Australia
Plant Biosystems

Uncertainty in past and future anthropogenic carbon emissions obscures climate change modelling. Available allometrics are insufficient for regional-level accounting of old-growth, pre-logging carbon stocks. The project goal was to determine the aboveground carbon (biomass and necromass) for a typical old-growth Eucalyptus delegatensis-dominated mixed-forest in Tasmania. Allometrics were developed for aboveground biomass of Eucalyptus delegatensis and generic rainforest understorey species. A total of 207 eucalypts with DBH 0.21-4.5 m, and 897 rainforest understorey trees with DBH 0.01-2.52 m were measured across 7.7 ha. DBH frequency distribution of E. delegatensis showed at least two age cohorts and distinct positive skew, whereas its DBH carbon distribution showed distinct negative skew. Half of the eucalypt biomass was from trees with DBH > 2.4(0.1) m, and 16% with DBH ≥ 3.5 m (from ~1.1 trees ha -1) - indicating the importance of allometrics for high DBH. Aboveground carbon was 622(180) Mg ha -1, with ~20% from understorey and ~25% from necromass. The carbon in aboveground biomass was above the median value for temperate forests. The long-term aboveground-carbon emissions from clearfelling the same forest type from 1999 to 2009 is likely to be 2.9(±1.3) Tg, depending on the growth and seral stages of the forest logged. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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