Avon-by-the-Sea, NJ, United States
Avon-by-the-Sea, NJ, United States

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Song K.,CAS Changchun Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology | Song K.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Li L.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Tedesco L.P.,The Wetlands Institute | And 3 more authors.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Cyanobacterial blooms in water supply sources in both central Indiana USA (CIN) and South Australia (SA) are a cause of great concerns for toxin production and water quality deterioration. Remote sensing provides an effective approach for quick assessment of cyanobacteria through quantification of phycocyanin (PC) concentration. In total, 363 samples spanning a large variation of optically active constituents (OACs) in CIN and SA waters were collected during 24 field surveys. Concurrently, remote sensing reflectance spectra (Rrs) were measured. A partial least squares-artificial neural network (PLS-ANN) model, artificial neural network (ANN) and three-band model (TBM) were developed or tuned by relating the Rrs with PC concentration. Our results indicate that the PLS-ANN model outperformed the ANN and TBM with both the original spectra and simulated ESA/Sentinel-3/Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) and EO-1/Hyperion spectra. The PLS-ANN model resulted in a high coefficient of determination (R2) for CIN dataset (R2=0.92, R: 0.3-220.7μg/L) and SA (R2=0.98, R: 0.2-13.2μg/L). In comparison, the TBM model yielded an R2=0.77 and 0.94 for the CIN and SA datasets, respectively; while the ANN obtained an intermediate modeling accuracy (CIN: R2=0.86; SA: R2=0.95). Applying the simulated OLCI and Hyperion aggregated datasets, the PLS-ANN model still achieved good performance (OLCI: R2=0.84; Hyperion: R2=0.90); the TBM also presented acceptable performance for PC estimations (OLCI: R2=0.65, Hyperion: R2=0.70). Based on the results, the PLS-ANN is an effective modeling approach for the quantification of PC in productive water supplies based on its effectiveness in solving the non-linearity of PC with other OACs. Furthermore, our investigation indicates that the ratio of inorganic suspended matter (ISM) to PC concentration has close relationship to modeling relative errors (CIN: R2=0.81; SA: R2=0.92), indicating that ISM concentration exert significant impact on PC estimation accuracy. © 2014 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).


Baker P.J.,Miami University Ohio | Baker P.J.,The Wetlands Institute | Costanzo J.P.,Miami University Ohio | Iverson J.B.,Earlham College | Lee Jr. R.E.,Miami University Ohio
Canadian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Timing of emergence from the natal nest is a variable trait in the life history of turtles. In theory, hatchling turtles that emerge synchronously, within and among nests, should gain a survival advantage over hatchlings that emerge independently. We examined emergence patterns for seven species of freshwater turtles that use a common nesting area in northern Indiana, USA. Hatchlings of four species emerged from the nest exclusively in late summer or early fall. However, hatchlings of three species usually overwintered in the nest chamber and emerged the following spring. Interspecific and intraspecific emergence from the nest was more synchronous in fall than in spring. Mean date of fall emergence from the nest did not vary among species; however, a species-specific pattern of emergence was observed in spring. Midland Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta marginata Agassiz, 1857) emerged in late March and early April and, on average, these hatchlings left their nests 2 weeks earlier than Northern Map Turtles (Graptemys geographica (Le Sueur, 1817)) and 4 weeks earlier than Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied-Neuwied, 1839)). Although hatchlings of C. p. marginata are smaller than those of G. geographica and T. s. elegans, presumably they gain a survival or growth advantage by emerging earlier.


Song K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Song K.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Wang Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li L.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

In the past five decades, the wetlands in the Muleng-Xingkai Plain, Northeast China, have experienced rapid shrinkage and fragmentation. In this study, wetlands cover change and agricultural cultivation were investigated through a time series of thematic maps from 1954, and Landsat satellite images representing the last five decades (1976, 1986, 1995, 2000, and 2005). Wetlands shrinkage and fragmentation were studied based on landscape metrics and the land use changes transition matrix. Furthermore, the driving forces were explored according to socioeconomic development and major natural environmental factors. The results indicate a significant decrease in the wetlands area in the past five decades, with an average annual decrease rate of 9004 ha/yr. Of the 625,268 ha of native wetlands in 1954, approximately 64% has been converted to other land use types by 2005, of which conversion to cropland accounts for the largest share (83%). The number of patches decreased from 1272 (1954) to 197 (1986) and subsequently increased to 326 (2005). The mean patch size changed from 480 ha (1954) to 1521 ha (1976), and then steadily decreased to 574 ha (2005). The largest patch index (total core area index) indicates wetlands shrinkage with decreased values from 31.73 (177,935 ha) to 3.45 (39,421 ha) respectively. Climatic changes occurred over the study period, providing a potentially favorable environment for agricultural development. At the same time population, groundwater harvesting, and fertilizer application increased significantly, resulting in wetlands degradation. According to the results, the shrinkage and fragmentation of wetlands could be explained by socioeconomic development and secondarily aided by changing climatic conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Song K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Song K.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Li L.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Tedesco L.,The Wetlands Institute | And 3 more authors.
Water Resources Management | Year: 2014

Morse Reservoir, a major water supply for the Indianapolis metropolitan area, IN, USA, experiences nuisance cyanobacterial blooms due to agricultural and point source nutrient loadings. Hyperspectral remote sensing data from both in situ and airborne AISA measurements were applied to an adaptive model based on Genetic Algorithms-Partial Least Squares (GA-PLS) by relating the spectral signal with total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) concentrations. Results indicate that GA-PLS relating in situ spectral reflectance to the nutrients yielded high coefficients of determination (TN: R 2 = 0.88; TP: R 2 = 0.91) between measured and estimated TN (RMSE = 0.07 mg/L; Range: 0.6-1.88 mg/L), and TP (RMSE = 0.017; Range: 0.023-0.314 mg/L). The GA-PLS model also yielded high performance with AISA imaging data, showing close correlation between measured and estimated values (TN: RMSE = 0.11 mg/L; TP: RMSE = 0.02 mg/L). An analysis of in situ data indicated that TN and TP were highly correlated with chlorophyll-a and suspended matter in the water column, setting a basis for remotely sensed estimates of TN and TP. Spatial correlation of TN, TP with chlorophyll-a and suspended matters further confirmed that remote quantification of nutrients for inland waters is based on the strong association of optically active constituents with nutrients. Based on these results, in situ and airborne hyperspectral remote sensors can provide both quantitative and qualitative information on the distribution and concentration of nutrients in Morse Reservoir. Our modeling approach combined with hyperspectral remote sensing is applicable to other productive waters, where algal blooms are triggered by nutrients. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Song K.S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Song K.S.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Li L.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Tedesco L.,The Wetlands Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Informatics | Year: 2014

The present study is focused on remote quantification of total suspended matter (TSM) for turbid inland waters. In situ remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and TSM at 863 stations over 10 inland water bodies from China, Australia, and USA were collected and examined. Four empirical regression models based on sensitive reflectance bands (SB), derivatives (SD), the band ratio proposed by Doxaran et al. (2002; Rrs850/Rrs550: DM), and optimal band ratios (OBR) were examined to estimate TSM. The performance varies due to TSM concentration and the Chl-a: TSM ratio. The four models perform well when the water bodies are dominated with non-algal particles at high TSM concentration and yielded higher accuracy (R2 ranged from 0.83 to 0.91) with both DM and OBR models, while the OBR model outperformed other models when waters are dominated by phytoplankton. Our findings also indicate that phytoplankton in the water column affects the band ratio algorithm for TSM estimates. When data from all water bodies are considered collectively, the OBR model (R2 = 0.92) marginally outperforms the other three models (0.89, 0.87, and 0.88 for DM, SB, and SD, respectively). Future studies should be undertaken to analyze the influence of phytoplankton abundance on water-leaving signals for TSM estimates. The results of the present study also need further analyses to gain a more in-depth understanding of inherent optical properties for optically active constituents (OACs), such as absorption and backscattering to interpret the observed variations. © 2014 ISEIS All rights reserved.


Song K.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Song K.,CAS Changchun Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology | Li L.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Tedesco L.,The Wetlands Institute | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Geographical Science | Year: 2015

This study examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral slope (S), and further to analyze its sources in three productive water supplies (Eagle Creek, Geist and Morse reservoirs) from Indiana, USA. The results showed that he absorption coefficient aCDOM(440) ranged from 0.37 m–1 to 3.93 m–1 with an average of 1.89 ± 0.76 m–1 (±SD) for the aggregated dataset, and S varied from 0.0048 nm–1 to 0.0239 nm–1 with an average of 0.0108 ± 0.0040 nm–1. A significant relationship between S and aCDOM(440) can be fitted with a power equation (S = 0.013 × aCDOM(440)–0.42, R2 = 0.612), excluding data from Geist Reservoir during high flow (12 April 2010) and the Morse Reservoir on 25 June 2010 due to a T-storm achieves even higher determination coefficient (R2 = 0.842). Correlation analysis indicated that aCDOM(440) has strong association with inorganic suspended matter (ISM) concentration (0.231 < R2 < 0.786) for each of the field surveys, and this trend followed the aggregated datasets (R2 = 0.447, p < 0.001). In contrast, chlorophyll-a was only correlated with aCDOM(440) in summer and autumn (0.081 < R2 < 0.763), indicating that CDOM is mainly from terrigenous sources in early spring and that phytoplankton contributed during the algal blooming season. The S value was used to characterize CDOM origin. The results indicate that the CDOM source is mainly controlled by hydrological variations, while phytoplankton originated organic matter also closely linked with CDOM dynamics in three productive reservoirs. © 2015, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Song K.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Song K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li L.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Tedesco L.P.,The Wetlands Institute | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

Morse Reservoir (MR), a major source of the water supply for the Indianapolis metropolitan region, is now experiencing nuisance cyanobacterial blooms. These blooms cause water quality degradation, as well as reducing the aesthetic quality of water by producing toxins, scums, and foul odors. Hyperspectral remote sensing data from both in situ and airborne AISA measurements were applied to GA-PLS by relating the spectral signal with measured water eutrophication parameters, e.g., chlorophyll-a (Chl- a), phycocyanin (PC), total suspended matter (TSM), and Secchi disk depth (SDD). Our results indicate that GA-PLS relating field sensor acquired spectral reflectance to the above-mentioned four parameters yielded low root mean square error between measured and estimated Chl- a (RMSE = 10.4; Range (R): 1.8-215.8 μg/L), PC (RMSE = 18.6; R: 1.4-371.0 μg/L), TSM (RMSE = 3.8; R: 3.6-81.4. mg/L), SDD (RMSE = 5.8; R: 25-135. cm) for MR. The GA-PLS model also yielded high performance with AISA image spectra, and the RMSEs were 12.1 μg/L, 25.3 μg/L, 5.9. mg/L and 5.7. cm, respectively for Chl- a, PC, TSM, and SDD. Four water quality parameters were mapped with GA-PLS using AISA hyperspectral image. Based on these results, in situ and airborne hyperspectral remote sensors can provide both quantitative and qualitative information on the distribution and concentration of cyanobacteria, suspended matter, and transparency in MR. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Song K.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Song K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li L.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Tedesco L.,The Wetlands Institute | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Nuisance cyanobacterial blooms degrade water resources through accelerated eutrophication, odor generation, and production of toxins that cause adverse effects on human health. Quick and effective methods for detecting cyanobacterial abundance in drinking water supplies are urgently needed to compliment conventional laboratory methods, which are costly and time consuming. Hyperspectral remote sensing can be an effective approach for rapid assessment of cyanobacterial blooms. Samples (n = 250) were collected from five drinking water sources in central Indiana (CIN), USA, and South Australia (SA), which experience nuisance cyanobacterial blooms. In situ hyperspectral data were used to develop models by relating spectral signal with handheld fluorescence probe (YSI 6600 XLM-SV) measured phycocyanin (PC in cell/ml), a proxy pigment unique for indicating the presence of cyanobacteria. Three-band model (TBM), which is effective for chlorophyll-a estimates, was tuned to quantify cyanobacteria coupled with the PC probe measured cyanobacteria. As a comparison, two band model proposed by Simis et al. (Limnol Oceanogr, 50(11): 237-245, 2005; denoted as SM05) was paralleled to evaluate TBM model performance. Our observation revealed a high correlation between measured and estimated PC for SA dataset (R2 = 0.96; range: 534-20,200 cell/ml) and CIN dataset (R2 = 0.88; range: 1,300-44,500 cell/ml). The potential of this modeling approach for imagery data were assessed by simulated ESA/Centinel3/OLCI spectra, which also resulted in satisfactory performance with the TBM for both SA dataset (RMSE % = 26.12) and CIN dataset (RMSE % = 34.49). Close relationship between probe-measured PC and laboratory measured cyanobacteria biovolume was observed (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.0001) for the CIN dataset, indicating a stable performance for PC probe. Based on our observation, field spectroscopic measurement coupled with PC probe measurements can provide quantitative cyanobacterial bloom information from both relatively static and flowing inland waters. Hence, it has promising implications for water resource managers to obtain information for early warning detection of cyanobacterial blooms through the close association between probe measured PC values and cyanobacterial biovolume via remote sensing modeling. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Reses H.E.,University of Michigan | Reses H.E.,The Wetlands Institute | Wood R.C.,The Wetlands Institute
Herpetological Conservation and Biology | Year: 2015

Roads can adversely affect animal populations by impacting nesting behavior, causing roadway mortality, and fragmenting habitat. Fences have frequently been implemented to combat road mortality, but at the expense of changing patterns of nesting behavior and increasing population fragmentation. We studied the effectiveness of barrier fences that were installed to reduce road mortality in Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) seeking nesting habitat along two causeways in coastal southern New Jersey. To determine whether the barriers limited roadway access, we surveyed the ground within five-meters of the fences for evidence of Diamondback Terrapin nest holes in relation to the barrier, indicating whether nesting activity occurred on the marsh side of the fence or on the road side. As a second direct measure of effectiveness, we created a corrugated tubing arena and documented Diamondback Terrapin escape success to examine barrier breaching. Fences were generally effective in restricting Diamondback Terrapin movement: we found far fewer road-side nests (n =39) than marsh-side nests (n = 521), as well as a spatial clustering of road-side nests near the free ends of the fence at one field site. Additionally, the barrier breaching success was positively correlated with gap size between the fence and the ground (P < 0.001), irrespective of body size, indicating that diligent fence maintenance is imperative. Given Diamondback Terrapins’ high probability of road mortality and population sensitivity to female mortality, we conclude that fences are currently essential in their conservation and may warrant greater consideration in the field of turtle conservation, particularly in species with nesting movements that intersect with roads. © 2015. Hannah E. Reses. All Rights Reserved.


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