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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Houtman C.J.,The Water Laboratory
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

An increasing part of drinking water in Europe is prepared from surface water. At the same time, a growing number of emerging contaminants is being discovered in surface water. This review provides an overview of classes of emerging contaminants nowadays detected in the aquatic environment that are of relevance for drinking water production. These comprise e.g. endocrine disrupting compounds, such as hormones and compounds with hormone-like properties, pharmaceuticals, illicit and non-controlled drugs, sweeteners, personal care products, complexing agents, nanoparticles, perfluorinated compounds, flame retardants, pesticides, and fuel additives. The individual compounds are observed in concentrations that are generally considered too low to cause acute effects. Nevertheless, health effects due to long-term exposure to a mixture of low concentrations of all kinds of emerging contaminants cannot be excluded with current knowledge. Moreover, contamination of drinking water with man-made substances is considered unwanted in principle. The precautionary principle is used to motivate that prevention of emission of emerging contaminants into the environment is the preferred approach to safeguard sustainable drinking water production. In the mean time, extensive monitoring of the sources and development and application of advanced treatment techniques are used to prepare safe drinking water. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Jonker W.,VU University Amsterdam | Lamoree M.H.,VU University Amsterdam | Houtman C.J.,The Water Laboratory | Hamers T.,VU University Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2015

In this study we developed a new LC nanofractionation platform that combines a human cell (BG1.Luc) gene reporter assay with a high resolution mass spectrometer for the detection and identification of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic compounds in environmental waters. The selection of this assay was based on its high sensitivity and selectivity, which is required for environmental trace level detection. We modified an autosampler and controlled it with in-house developed software to collect fractions in the low second range in microtiter plates. This ensured that chromatographic separation was maintained and allowed straightforward hyphenation with the bioassay. After bioassay testing, bioassay chromatograms were reconstructed and directly correlated with MS chromatograms that were obtained in parallel. This enabled to pinpoint bioactives in the MS chromatogram within a single fractionation cycle and results in a significant increase in throughput compared to traditional EDA studies. The sensitivity of the platform was low enough for environmental waters (80. nM for bisphenol A and 320. pM and 3.2. nM for estradiol and estriol, respectively). In addition, the ability of the platform to detect anti-estrogens was successfully demonstrated as well. Finally, real samples were analysed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Houtman C.J.,The Water Laboratory | Kroesbergen J.,The Water Laboratory | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Dunea Dune and Water | van der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

The presence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water is a topic of concern. Previous risk assessments indicate that their low concentrations are very unlikely to pose risks to human health, however often conclusions had to be based on small datasets and mixture effects were not included.The objectives of this study were to a) investigate if pharmaceuticals in surface and polder water penetrate in drinking water, b) assess the lifelong exposure of consumers to pharmaceuticals via drinking water and c) assess the possible individual and mixture health risks associated with this exposure.To fulfill these aims, a 2-year set of 4-weekly monitoring data of pharmaceuticals was used from three drinking water production plants. The 42 pharmaceuticals that were monitored were selected according to their consumption volume, earlier detection, toxicity and representation of the most relevant therapeutic classes. Lifelong exposures were calculated from concentrations and compared with therapeutic doses. Health risks were assessed by benchmarking concentrations with provisional guideline values. Combined risks of mixtures of pharmaceuticals were estimated using the concept of Concentration Addition.The lifelong exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water was calculated to be extremely low, i.e. a few mg, in total corresponding to <. 10% of the dose a patient is administered on one day. The risk of adverse health effects appeared to be negligibly low. Application of Concentration Addition confirmed this for the mixture of pharmaceuticals simultaneously present. The investigated treatment plants appeared to reduce the (already negligible) risk up to 80%. The large available monitoring dataset enabled the performance of a realistic risk assessment. It showed that working with maximum instead of average concentrations may overestimate the risk considerably. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


ter Laak T.L.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | van der Aa M.,Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Houtman C.J.,The Water Laboratory | Stoks P.G.,RIWA Rhine | van Wezel A.P.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute
Environment International | Year: 2010

In this study, pharmaceuticals were frequently monitored in the Rhine delta between the year 2002 and 2008. Average concentrations of several X-ray contrast mediums were above 0.1 μg/L, the average concentration of carbamazepine was about 0.1 μg/L, while average concentrations of the other pharmaceuticals generally fell between 0.1 and 0.01 μg/L. Concentrations were used to calculate annual loads transported by the Rhine at Lobith. These loads were compared to the annual sales upstream of Lobith. This mass balance approach shows that substantial fractions (1.1% to 70.4%) of the 20 most frequently observed pharmaceuticals sold in the Rhine catchment area are recovered in the Rhine at Lobith. The observed annual loads were compared to loads predicted from annual sales in the catchment area, excreted fractions by humans and removal by waste water treatment. Observed and predicted annual loads were rather similar. The difference of the loads obtained from monitoring data and estimated from consumption was smaller than a factor of seven and did not exceed a factor of two for 15 out of the 20 pharmaceuticals. This illustrates the potential of using sales data for the prediction of concentrations in the aqueous environment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Houtman C.J.,The Water Laboratory | ten Broek R.,The Water Laboratory | de Jong K.,The Water Laboratory | Pieterse B.,BioDetection Systems | Kroesbergen J.,The Water Laboratory
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2013

The river Meuse serves as a drinking-water source for more than 6 million people in France, Belgium, and The Netherlands. Pharmaceuticals and pesticides, both designed to be biologically active, are important classes of contaminants present in this river. The variation in the presence of pharmaceuticals in time and space in the Dutch part of the Meuse was studied using a multicomponent analytical method for pharmaceuticals combined with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the results. Trends and variation in time in the presence of pharmaceuticals were investigated in a dead-end side stream of the Meuse that serves as an intake point for the production of drinking water, and 93% of the selected compounds were detected. Highest concentrations were found for the antidiabetic metformin. Furthermore, a spatial snapshot of the presence of pharmaceuticals and pesticides was made along the river Meuse. Principal component analysis was successfully applied to reveal that wastewater-treatment plant effluent and water composition at the Belgian border were the main factors determining which compounds are found at different locations. The Dutch part of the river basin appeared responsible for approximately one-half of the loads of pharmaceuticals and pesticides discharged by the Meuse into the North Sea. The present study showed that multicomponent monitoring in combination with principal component analysis is a powerful tool to provide insight into contamination patterns in surface waters. © 2013 SETAC. Source

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