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Snell J.A.,University of Liverpool | Loh N.-H.W.,The Walton Center for Neurology and Neurosurgery | Mahambrey T.,Intensive Care Unit | Shokrollahi K.,Mersey Regional Burns Unit
Critical Care | Year: 2013

Between 4 and 22% of burn patients presenting to the emergency department are admitted to critical care. Burn injury is characterised by a hypermetabolic response with physiologic, catabolic and immune effects. Burn care has seen renewed interest in colloid resuscitation, a change in transfusion practice and the development of anti-catabolic therapies. A literature search was conducted with priority given to review articles, meta-analyses and well-designed large trials; paediatric studies were included where adult studies were lacking with the aim to review the advances in adult intensive care burn management and place them in the general context of day-to-day practical burn management. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd.

Ando H.,Liverpool Hope University | Chakrabarti B.,University of Liverpool | Angus R.M.,University of Liverpool | Cousins R.,Liverpool Hope University | And 2 more authors.
BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care | Year: 2014

Objective: Although non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can promote quality of life in motor neuron disease (MND), previous studies have disregarded the impact of progression of illness. This study explored how patients' perceptions of NIV treatment evolve over time and how this was reflected in their adherence to NIV. Methods: Five patients with MND (male=4, mean age=59 years), from a bigger cohort who were prospectively followed, had multiple post- NIV semistructured interviews, covering more than 12 months, along with ventilator interaction data. The transcribed phenomenological data were analysed using qualitative methodology. Results: Three themes emerged: experience of NIV, influence on attitudes and perceived impact of NIV on prognosis. The ventilator interaction data identified regular use of NIV by four participants who each gave positive account of their experience of NIV treatment, and irregular use by one participant who at interview revealed a negative attitude to NIV treatment and in whom MND induced feelings of hopelessness. Conclusions: This exploratory study suggests that a positive coping style, adaptation and hope are key factors for psychological well-being and better adherence to NIV. More studies are needed to determine these relationships.

Young C.A.,The Walton Center for Neurology and Neurosurgery
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Motor neuron disease (MND), also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a progressive, neurodegenerative condition which may cause dysphagia, as well as limb weakness, dysarthria, emotional lability and respiratory failure. Since normal salivary production is 0.5 to 1.5 litres daily, loss of salivary clearance due to dysphagia leads to salivary pooling and sialorrhea, often resulting in distress and inconvenience to patients. To systematically review evidence on treatment of sialorrhea in MND, including medications, radiotherapy and surgery. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (1 October 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials )(CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library issue 3, 2010), MEDLINE (January 1966 to September 2010), EMBASE (January 1980 to September 2010), AMED (1985 to September 2010) and CINAHL Plus (January 1937 September 2010). All bibliographies of the identified randomized trials were reviewed and authors contacted as needed. Known experts in the field were contacted to identify further published and unpublished papers. We included randomized and quasi-randomised controlled studies on any intervention for sialorrhea and related symptoms, in people with MND. Review authors summarised data independently in a customised data collection form and confirmed data presented in Cochrane Review Manager software. Only one randomized controlled trial was identified. This was a well designed study of botulinum toxin B injected into parotid and submandibular glands of 20 patients, which showed positive results for four weeks (Jackson 2009). There was low risk of bias in the study and no significant adverse events reported. There is some evidence for use of botulinum toxin injections to salivary glands for the treatment of sialorrhea in MND. Further research is required on this important symptom. Data are needed on the problem of sialorrhea in MND and its measurement, both by patient self report measures and objective tests. These will allow the development of better randomized controlled trials.

Ellis R.,The Walton Center for Neurology and Neurosurgery | Brown S.,Countess of Chester | Boggild M.,Townsville Hospital
Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) | Year: 2015

Therapy-related acute leukaemia (TRAL) is a significant concern, when considering treatment with mitoxantrone for multiple sclerosis (MS). We re-evaluated the literature, identifying all case reports and series of > 50 patients reporting TRAL cases in MS. TRAL was diagnosed in 0.73% of the 12,896 patients identified. Median onset was 22 months following treatment. We calculated a number needed to harm of 137.5 exposed patients, significantly higher than our 2008 analysis. We found that 82.8% of patients were exposed to > 60 mg/m(2) with a relative risk of 1.85 (p = 0.018) compared to < 60 mg/m(2), strongly suggesting a relationship to dose. MS treatment regimens which limit the mitoxantrone dose to < 60 mg/m(2) reduce the risk of TRAL. © The Author(s), 2014.

Barone D.G.,The Walton Center for Neurology and Neurosurgery
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014

Extent of resection is believed to be a key prognostic factor in neuro-oncology. Image guided surgery uses a variety of tools or technologies to help achieve this goal. It is not clear whether any of these, sometimes very expensive, tools (or their combination) should be recommended as part of standard care for patient with brain tumours. We set out to determine if image guided surgery offers any advantage in terms of extent of resection over surgery without any image guidance and if any one tool or technology was more effective. To compare image guided surgery with surgery either not using any image guidance or to compare surgery using two different forms of image guidance. The primary outcome criteria was extent of resection and adverse events. Other outcome criteria were overall survival; progression free survival; and quality of life (QoL). The following databases were searched, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 1, 2013), MEDLINE (1948 to March, week 10, 2013) and EMBASE (1970 to 2013, week 10). Reference lists of all identified studies were searched. Two journals, the Journal of Neuro-Oncology and Neuro-oncology, were handsearched from 1991 to 2013, including all conference abstracts. Neuro-oncologists, trial authors and manufacturers were contacted regarding ongoing and unpublished trials. Study participants included patients of all ages with a presumed new or recurrent brain tumour (any location or histology) from clinical examination and imaging (computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or both). Image guidance interventions included intra-operative MRI (iMRI); fluorescence guided surgery; neuronavigation including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); and ultrasonography. Included studies had to be randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with comparisons made either with patients having surgery without the image guidance tool in question or with another type of image guidance tool. Subgroups were to include high grade glioma; low grade glioma; brain metastasis; skull base meningiomas; and sellar or parasellar tumours. Two review authors independently assessed the search results for relevance, undertook critical appraisal according to known guidelines, and extracted data using a pre-specified pro forma. Four RCTs were identified, each using a different image guided technique: 1. iMRI (58 patients), 2. 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence guided surgery (322 patients), 3. neuronavigation (45 patients) and 4. DTI-neuronavigation (238 patients). Meta-analysis was not appropriate due to differences in the tumours included (eloquent versus non-eloquent locations) and variations in the image guidance tools used in the control arms (usually selective utilisation of neuronavigation). There were significant concerns regarding risk of bias in all the included studies, especially for the study using DTI-neuronavigation. All studies included patients with high grade glioma, with one study also including patients with low grade glioma. The extent of resection was increased with iMRI (risk ratio (RR) (incomplete resection) 0.13, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.96, low quality evidence), 5-ALA (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.71) and DTI-neuronavigation (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, very low quality evidence). Insufficient data were available to evaluate the effects of neuronavigation on extent of resection. Reporting of adverse events was incomplete, with a suggestion of significant reporting bias. Overall, reported events were low in most studies, but there was concern that surgical resection using 5-ALA may lead to more frequent early neurological deficits. There was no clear evidence of improvement in overall survival (OS) with 5-ALA (hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.07) or DTI-neuronavigation (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.00) in patients with high grade glioma. Progression-free survival (PFS) data were not available in the appropriate format for analysis.Data for quality of life (QoL) were only available for one study and suffered from significant attrition bias. There is low to very low quality evidence (according to GRADE criteria) that image guided surgery using iMRI, 5-ALA or DTI-neuronavigation increases the proportion of patients with high grade glioma that have a complete tumour resection on post-operative MRI. There is a theoretical concern that maximising the extent of resection may lead to more frequent adverse events but this was poorly reported in the included studies. Effects of image guided surgery on survival and QoL are unclear. Further research, including studies of ultrasound guided surgery, is needed.

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