The Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego

San Diego, CA, United States

The Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego

San Diego, CA, United States
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Suez J.,The Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory | Suez J.,Tel Aviv University | Porwollik S.,The Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego | Dagan A.,The Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Human infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS) infrequently causes invasive systemic disease and bacteremia. To understand better the nature of invasive NTS (iNTS), we studied the gene content and the pathogenicity of bacteremic strains from twelve serovars (Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Choleraesuis, Dublin, Virchow, Newport, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:- and Hadar). Comparative genomic hybridization using a Salmonella enterica microarray revealed a core of 3233 genes present in all of the iNTS strains, which include the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1-5, 9, 13, 14; five fimbrial operons (bcf, csg, stb, sth, sti); three colonization factors (misL, bapA, sinH); and the invasion gene, pagN. In the iNTS variable genome, we identified 16 novel genomic islets; various NTS virulence factors; and six typhoid-associated virulence genes (tcfA, cdtB, hlyE, taiA, STY1413, STY1360), displaying a wider distribution among NTS than was previously known. Characterization of the bacteremic strains in C3H/HeN mice showed clear differences in disease manifestation. Previously unreported characterization of serovars Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Bredeney and Virchow in the mouse model showed low ability to elicit systemic disease, but a profound and elongated shedding of serovars Schwarzengrund and 9,12:l,v:- (as well as Enteritidis and Heidelberg) due to chronic infection of the mouse. Phenotypic comparison in macrophages and epithelial cell lines demonstrated a remarkable intra-serovar variation, but also showed that S. Typhimurium bacteremic strains tend to present lower intracellular growth than gastroenteritis isolates. Collectively, our data demonstrated a common core of virulence genes, which might be required for invasive salmonellosis, but also an impressive degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, highlighting that bacteremia is a complex phenotype, which cannot be attributed merely to an enhanced invasion or intracellular growth of a particular strain. © 2013 Suez et al.


Ameiss K.,Arizona State University | Ameiss K.,Pfizer | Ashraf S.,Arizona State University | Kong W.,Arizona State University | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

The use of live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASV) is a promising approach for controlling infections by multiple pathogens. The highly conserved extracellular domain of the influenza M2 protein (M2e) has been shown to provide broad spectrum protection against multiple influenza subtypes sharing similar M2e sequences. An M2e epitope common to a number of avian influenza subtypes was inserted into the core antigen of woodchuck hepatitis virus and expressed in two different recombinant attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strains. One strain was attenuated via deletion of the cya and crp genes. The second strain was engineered to exhibit a programmed delayed lysis phenotype. Both strains were able to produce both monomeric fusion proteins and fully assembled core particles. Mice orally immunized with the strain exhibiting delayed lysis induced significantly greater antibody titers than the Δcya Δcrp strain and provided moderate protection against weight loss to a low level challenge with the influenza strain A/WSN/33 modified to express the M2e sequence common to avian viruses. Further studies indicated that the Salmonella expressed core antigen induced comparable antibody levels to the purified core antigen injected with an alum adjuvant and that both are able to reduce viral replication in the lungs. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating Salmonella-mediated delivery of influenza virus M2e protein in a mammalian host to induce a protective immune response against viral challenge. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Periaswamy B.,ETH Zurich | Maier L.,ETH Zurich | Vishwakarma V.,KIIT University | Slack E.,ETH Zurich | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Live attenuated vaccines are of great value for preventing infectious diseases. They represent a delicate compromise between sufficient colonization-mediated adaptive immunity and minimizing the risk for infection by the vaccine strain itself. Immune defects can predispose to vaccine strain infections. It has remained unclear whether vaccine safety could be improved via mutations attenuating a vaccine in immune-deficient individuals without compromising the vaccine's performance in the normal host. We have addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea and a live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain (ssaV). Vaccination with this strain elicited protective immunity in wild type mice, but a fatal systemic infection in immune-deficient cybb-/-nos2-/- animals lacking NADPH oxidase and inducible NO synthase. In cybb-/-nos2-/- mice, we analyzed the attenuation of 35 ssaV strains carrying one additional mutation each. One strain, Z234 (ssaV SL1344_3093), was >1000-fold attenuated in cybb-/-nos2-/- mice and ≈100 fold attenuated in tnfr1-/- animals. However, in wt mice, Z234 was as efficient as ssaV with respect to host colonization and the elicitation of a protective, O-antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) response. These data suggest that it is possible to engineer live attenuated vaccines which are specifically attenuated in immuno-compromised hosts. This might help to improve vaccine safety. © 2012 Periaswamy et al.


Sheikh A.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Sheikh A.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Charles R.C.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Charles R.C.,Harvard University | And 27 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever. It is a human-restricted pathogen, and few data exist on S. Typhi gene expression in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings: We applied an RNA capture and amplification technique, Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences (SCOTS), and microarray hybridization to identify S. Typhi transcripts expressed in the blood of five humans infected with S. Typhi in Bangladesh. In total, we detected the expression of mRNAs for 2,046 S. Typhi genes (44% of the S. Typhi genome) in human blood; expression of 912 genes was detected in all 5 patients, and expression of 1,100 genes was detected in 4 or more patients. Identified transcripts were associated with the virulence-associated PhoP regulon, Salmonella pathogenicity islands, the use of alternative carbon and energy sources, synthesis and transport of iron, thiamine, and biotin, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides and oxidative stress. The most highly represented group were genes currently annotated as encoding proteins designated as hypothetical, unknown, or unclassified. Of the 2,046 detected transcripts, 1,320 (29% of the S. Typhi genome) had significantly different levels of detection in human blood compared to in vitro cultures; detection of 141 transcripts was significantly different in all 5 patients, and detection of 331 transcripts varied in at least 4 patients. These mRNAs encode proteins of unknown function, those involved in energy metabolism, transport and binding, cell envelope, cellular processes, and pathogenesis. We confirmed increased expression of a subset of identified mRNAs by quantitative-PCR. Conclusions/Significance: We report the first characterization of bacterial transcriptional profiles in the blood of patients with typhoid fever. S. Typhi is an important global pathogen whose restricted host range has greatly inhibited laboratory studies. Our results suggest that S. Typhi uses a largely uncharacterized genetic repertoire to survive within cells and utilize alternate energy sources during infection. © 2011 Sheikh et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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