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Gidalevitz T.,Northwestern University | Gidalevitz T.,Drexel University | Wang N.,Northwestern University | Wang N.,The University of Virginias College at Wise | And 3 more authors.
BMC Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Monogenic gain-of-function protein aggregation diseases, including Huntington's disease, exhibit substantial variability in age of onset, penetrance, and clinical symptoms, even between individuals with similar or identical mutations. This difference in phenotypic expression of proteotoxic mutations is proposed to be due, at least in part, to the variability in genetic background. To address this, we examined the role of natural variation in defining the susceptibility of genetically diverse individuals to protein aggregation and toxicity, using the Caenorhabditis elegans polyglutamine model.Results: Introgression of polyQ40 into three wild genetic backgrounds uncovered wide variation in onset of aggregation and corresponding toxicity, as well as alteration in the cell-specific susceptibility to aggregation. To further dissect these relationships, we established a panel of 21 recombinant inbred lines that showed a broad range of aggregation phenotypes, independent of differences in expression levels. We found that aggregation is a transgressive trait, and does not always correlate with measures of toxicity, such as early onset of muscle dysfunction, egg-laying deficits, or reduced lifespan. Moreover, distinct measures of proteotoxicity were independently modified by the genetic background.Conclusions: Resistance to protein aggregation and the ability to restrict its associated cellular dysfunction are independently controlled by the natural variation in genetic background, revealing important new considerations in the search for targets for therapeutic intervention in conformational diseases. Thus, our C. elegans model can serve as a powerful tool to dissect the contribution of natural variation to individual susceptibility to proteotoxicity. Please see related commentary by Kaeberlein, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/102. © 2013 Gidalevitz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Gulley T.,The University of Virginias College at Wise
Workplace Health and Safety | Year: 2014

The prevalence of diabetes has increased worldwide and the pathophysiological problems associated with diabetes increase the potential for employees' physical disabilities. These complications, including neuropathy, nephropathy, and visual impairment, negatively impact the job performance of employees and compromise workplace safety. Occupational health nurses can provide diabetes screening programs to employees and identify chronic disease risk factors early. This article describes an occupational diabetes screening program at a major corporation in Belize, Central America, defines diabetes, outlines the diabetes teaching plan, and presents the demographics of the participants and results of the screening. Cultural considerations and recommendations for future occupational diabetes screenings are proposed. Copyright © American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. Source


Chambers D.L.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Chambers D.L.,The University of Virginias College at Wise
Journal of Herpetology | Year: 2011

Exposure to altered conductivity can negatively impact many freshwater system inhabitants, including bacteria, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Several studies have shown increased conductivity to affect amphibian behavior and ecology. Comparatively fewer studies have taken a physiological approach to understanding the effects of altered conductivity in amphibians. This study used laboratory experiments to assess conductivity effects on stress hormone (corticosterone) levels in Jefferson Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum), Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica), and Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor) larvae. Prey consumption (only in A. jeffersonianum) and survival (in all species) also was examined after exposure to increased conductivity (0, 2,000, 4,000, and 8,000 ppb). There was a significant positive effect of increased conductivity exposure on baseline corticosterone levels in A. jeffersonianum after 1-week exposure. Exposure to increased conductivity did not influence baseline corticosterone levels in R. sylvatica and H. versicolor or confinement-induced corticosterone levels in all three species. Prey consumption in A. jeffersonianum was significantly negatively associated with increased conductivity (4,000 and 8,000 ppb). No mortality occurred in any species as a result of exposure to increased conductivity. These results suggest that exposure to increased conductivity can be a powerful environmental stressor for amphibians, despite having species-specific effects on corticosterone levels. © 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Source


Michael G.,The University of Virginias College at Wise
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism | Year: 2010

Several novels have attained popularity in the extreme right subculture, most notably, The Turner Diaries-a tale of race war that convulses America. Some observers have characterized these novels as blueprints for revolution and terrorist campaigns. The medium of fiction can be an effective vehicle for propagandizing to those persons who may not be amenable to non-fiction political treatises. This article reviews some of the more popular extremist novels. By doing so, it provides insight into the worldviews and aspirations of the contemporary extreme right. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Makal T.A.,Texas A&M University | Makal T.A.,The University of Virginias College at Wise | Wang X.,Texas A&M University | Zhou H.-C.,Texas A&M University
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2013

An isostructural series of NbO-type porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different dialkoxy-substituents of formula Cu2(TPTC-OR) (TPTC-OR = 2′,5′-di{alkyl}oxy-[1,1′:4′,1″-terphenyl]-3, 3″,5,5″-tetracarboxylate, R = Me, Et, nPr, nHex) has been synthesized and characterized. The moisture stability of the materials has been evaluated, and a new superhydrophobic porous MOF has been identified. The relationship between pendant side chain length and thermal stability has been analyzed by in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, showing decreased thermal stability as the side chain length is increased, contradictory to thermogravimetric decomposition studies. Additionally, the four materials exhibit moderate Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir surface areas (1127-1396 m2 g-1 and 1414-1658 m2 g -1) and H2 capacity up to 1.9 wt % at 77 K and 1 bar. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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