Rogers T.,The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016
Most small island states are under economic pressure to transition from energy systems dominated by imported oil, into systems based on clean energy technologies, which are often already economically viable due to local high energy prices. Guidance on transforming energy systems is limited with few examples available to policy makers. This paper applies a technological innovation system approach to recording the development of the much-lauded Barbados solar water heating industry and applies Bergek et al.'s (2008) functional analysis approach to put forward reasons for its successful adoption. The research concludes that the Barbados solar water heater industry actually appears to be in a state of market stagnation (at around 35% penetration) and using functional analysis identifies barriers and opportunities for future growth in the local and regional solar hot water heater market, as well as proposing the key actor networks necessary for success in sustainable energy technology based innovation system for small island states. © 2016 International Energy Initiative.
Harris T.,The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013
This paper compares support vector machine (SVM) based credit-scoring models built using Broad (less than 90 days past due) and Narrow (greater than 90 days past due) default definitions. When contrasting these two types of models, it was shown that models built using a Broad definition of default can outperform models developed using a Narrow default definition. In addition, this paper sought to create accurate credit-scoring models for a Barbados based credit union. Here, the results of empirical testing reveal that credit risk evaluation at the Barbados based institution can be improved if quantitative credit risk models are used as opposed to the current judgmental approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDowell S.A.C.,The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2014
A computational study of anionic complexes of general formula [FX⋯CH3⋯YF]- (X, Y = Cl, Br) predicted minimum energy structures with unusual bonding features. The two F atoms, the halogens X and Y and the central C atom all lie on the same straight line, with the three H atoms forming covalent CH bonds perpendicular to this straight line. The bonding analysis suggests that the extra negative charge is localized on the central C atom and interacts favourably with the sigma-holes originating from the adjacent FX and YF molecular subunits. This unusual cooperative bonding results in energetically stable complexes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peter Adams O.,The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy | Year: 2013
Background: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed. Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max) studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed. Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females) requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week) improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/ week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects) were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%. Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and non diabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long-term efficacy, and optimal exercise intensity and duration. © 2013 Adams, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
McDowell S.A.C.,The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus |
Buckingham A.D.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2010
A computational study of the cooperative effect of hydrogen bonding in Y⋯HCN⋯HCN and its diminutive effect in NCH⋯Y⋯HCN (Y=BF,CO, N2) linear complexes relative to the YHCN dimer was undertaken at the MP2/6 -311++G (2d,2p) level of theory. It was found that the additional hydrogen bond in Y⋯HCN⋯HCN leads to an enhanced YHCN dissociation energy, extended H-C bond length, and larger redshift of the H-C stretch relative to YHCN, while opposite features are observed in NCH⋯Y⋯HCN. The cooperativity is diminished as the hardness of the Y atom directly bonded to the HCN molecule increases. A particularly interesting result is that the small bond contraction and blueshift associated with the H-C bond in BFHCN is converted to a small bond extension and redshift on the formation of the BFHCNHCN trimer. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.