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Yoshihara H.,The University of Shimane
Holzforschung | Year: 2012

The off-axis Young's modulus and off-axis shear modulus of wood were obtained by conducting a flexural vibration test under the free-free condition, and performing a subsequent numerical analysis on the test data. The relationship between the off-axis Young's modulus and the off-axis angle was obtained. In contrast, the relationship between the off-axis shear modulus and the off-axis angle was discrepant from that predicted by the transformation rule based on the conventional hypothesis that Timoshenko's shear factor is 1.2. When the dependence of the shear factor on the off-axis angle was taken into account, however, the off-axis shear modulus could be obtained properly. © 2012 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston 2012.

Kanazawa I.,The University of Shimane
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Adiponectin has attracted widespread attention because of its pivotal role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Adiponectin and its receptor are shown to be expressed in osteoblasts, suggesting that adiponectin might affect bone metabolism. A number of clinical studies have shown that serum adiponectin is negatively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and positively with biochemical markers of bone turnover, suggesting that adiponectin may be a negative regulator of bone mass. However, most in vitro studies demonstrate that adiponectin stimulates the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts as well as the expression of osteocalcin. Adiponectin indirectly stimulates osteoclast differentiation via receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B ligand and osteoprotegerin expression in osteoblasts, while adiponectin directly inhibits osteoclast activity and bone resorption. These in vitro findings suggest that adiponectin stimulates bone formation and remodeling as well as inhibits bone resorption. In contrast, previous in vivo studies using overexpression and knockout mice of adiponectin have produced controversial results. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that osteocalcin derived form osteoblasts acts as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass. Osteocalcin could decrease fat pads and stimulate the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes, suggesting that bone metabolism is associated with fat metabolism through adiponectin and osteocalcin. In this review, I summarize the effect of adiponectin on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo, the association of adiponectin with BMD and bone markers in humans, and the role of adiponectin in the endocrine loop between bone and fat metabolism. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Yoshihara H.,The University of Shimane
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

The interlaminar shear strength was obtained by conducting an asymmetrical four-point bending test. Four types of specimens including rectangular, side-grooved, side-tapered, and notched specimens, were prepared. In the test, the span lengths varied, and the influence of the span length with respect to the specimen depth was examined. The specimen configuration was also examined. The interlaminar shear strength was effectively obtained, except for the notched specimens, when the span length was appropriately determined. When considering convenience in the preparation of the specimen, the rectangular specimen is particularly recommended, although the effective span length is restricted. In contrast, the side-tapered specimen is particularly recommended when considering a wide range of span lengths, although the fabrication of the specimen is somewhat time-consuming. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ozoe Y.,The University of Shimane
Advances in Insect Physiology | Year: 2013

γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA)- and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GABACls and GluCls) are members of the Cys-loop receptor channel family. Both channels are widely distributed in the nervous system of invertebrates and function as neurotransmitter receptors to mediate inhibitory synaptic transmission. These receptor channels are important targets for widely used insecticides and parasiticides. Diverse noncompetitive antagonists, including the phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil, inhibit inhibitory neurotransmission by binding to a site deep within the pentameric channel. Macrocyclic lactones, such as the insecticide/parasiticide avermectin, activate GluCls by irreversibly binding to the subunit interfaces. Recent genome sequencing and molecular biology studies have revealed a diversity of subunit isoforms arising from the duplication, alternative splicing, and RNA editing of the genes encoding these channels in various insect species, which may lead to physiological and pharmacological diversification of the receptor channels. Fipronil resistance due to target-site insensitivity in GABACls is a growing concern in several insect pest species. Nevertheless, identification of new chemistry and multiple potential binding sites for agonists, antagonists, and modulators in these channels suggests potential for developing novel pest control chemicals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nishigaki S.M.,The University of Shimane
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

Motivated by the statistical fluctuation of Dirac spectrum of QCD-like theories subjected to (pseudo)reality-violating perturbations and in the ε regime, we compute the smallest eigenvalue distribution and the level spacing distribution of chiral and nonchiral parametric random matrix ensembles of Dyson-Mehta-Pandey type. To this end we employ the Nyström-type method to numerically evaluate the Fredholm Pfaffian of the integral kernel for the chG(O,S)E-chGUE and G(O,S)E-GUE crossover. We confirm the validity and universality of our results by comparing them with several lattice models, namely fundamental and adjoint staggered Dirac spectra of SU(2) quenched lattice gauge theory under the twisted boundary condition (imaginary chemical potential) or perturbed by phase noise. Both in the zero-virtuality region and in the spectral bulk, excellent one-parameter fitting is achieved already on a small 44 lattice. Anticipated scaling of the fitting parameter with the twisting phase, mean level spacing, and the system size allows for precise determination of the pion decay (diffusion) constant F in the low-energy effective Lagrangian. © 2012 American Physical Society.

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