Tottori University and The University of Shimane | Date: 2017-01-25
This internal pressure loading system includes an internal pressure loading device and an information processing device. The internal pressure loading device is set at an inner face of a pipe, and includes a load meter which detects the load applied to the inner face of the pipe and a displacement meter which detects the deformation amount of the pipe. When the internal pressure loading device is expanded so as to increase the load to be detected by the load meter, the width of the pipe at which the displacement meter is located is reduced. On the basis of the load detected by the load meter and the deformation amount detected by the displacement meter, the information processing device evaluates the remaining strength of the pipe.
Onoda K.,The University of Shimane |
Yamaguchi S.,The University of Shimane
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2015
Apathy is defined as a mental state characterized by a lack of goal-directed behavior. However, the underlying mechanisms of apathy remain to be fully understood. Apathy shares certain symptoms with depression and both these affective disorders are known to be associated with dysfunctions of the frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. It is expected that clarifying differences in neural mechanisms between the two conditions would lead to an improved understanding of apathy. The present study was designed to investigate whether apathy and depression depend on different network properties of the frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits, by using resting state fMRI. Resting-state fMRI measurement and neuropsychological testing were conducted on middle-aged and older adults (. N=392). Based on graph theory, we estimated nodal efficiency (functional integration), local efficiency (functional segregation), and betweenness centrality. We conducted multiple regression analyses for the network parameters using age, sex, apathy, and depression as predictors. Interestingly, results indicated that the anterior cingulate cortex showed lower nodal efficiency, local efficiency, and betweenness centrality in apathy, whereas in depression, it showed higher nodal efficiency and betweenness centrality. The anterior cingulate cortex constitutes the so-called "salience network", which detects salient experiences. Our results indicate that apathy is characterized by decreased salience-related processing in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas depression is characterized by increased salience-related processing. © 2015 The Authors.
Onoda K.,The University of Shimane
Journal of cognitive neuroscience | Year: 2012
Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent component analysis was used to evaluate functional connectivity. Notably, the connectivity within the salience network that consisted of the bilateral insula and the anterior cingulated cortex decreased with aging; the impairment of functional connectivity was correlated with measured decreases in individual cognitive abilities. Furthermore, certain internetwork connectivities (salience to auditory, default mode to visual, etc.) also decreased with aging. These results suggest that (1) aging affects not only the default mode network but also other networks, specifically the salience network; (2) aging affects internetwork connectivity; and (3) disruption of the salience network is related to cognitive decline in elderly people.
Fujikura Ltd, Nippon Telegraph, Telephone, Osaka Prefecture University and The University of Shimane | Date: 2015-09-16
A plurality of cores 51 is disposed around the center axis of a first cladding 52 in a state in which an inter-core distance A of cores adjacent to each other is equal, a refractive index n_(1) of the core 51 is provided higher than a refractive index n_(2) of the first cladding 52, and the refractive index n_(2) of the first cladding 52 is provided higher than a refractive index n_(3) of a second cladding 53. Moreover, 5.8 /MFD(2c/(c + op)) 8 is satisfied, where the inter-core distance is defined as A, a mode field diameter of the core is defined as MFD, a cutoff wavelength is defined as c, and a wavelength of communication light incident on the core 51 is defined as op.
Fujikura Ltd, Nippon Telegraph, Telephone, Osaka Prefecture University and The University of Shimane | Date: 2015-09-16
In the present invention, a plurality of cores (51) is disposed around the center axis of a first cladding (52) in the state in which a center axis distance is equal between cores adjacent to each other. The first cladding (52) has a two-layer structure formed of a solid inner layer (52A) passed through the center axis of the first cladding (52) and an outer layer (52B) enclosing the inner layer (52A) and the plurality of cores (51) with no gap. A refractive index n1 of the core (51) is provided higher than refractive indexes (n_(2A)) and (n_(2B)) of the inner layer (52A) and the outer layer (52B), the refractive indexes (n2A) and (n2B) of the inner layer (52A) and the outer layer (52B) are provided higher than a refractive index n3 of the second cladding 53, and the refractive index (n_(2A)) of the inner layer (52A) is provided lower than the refractive index (n_(2B)) of the outer layer (52B).
Takenaga K.,The University of Shimane
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2011
Tumor growth, invasion and metastasis are largely dependent on the development of tumor vasculature. A great number of pro-and antiangiogenic molecules, have been identified. Bone marrow-derived cells are mobilized and recruited to angiogenic sites, by a variety of growth factors and cytokines, to promote angiogenesis and the formation of new blood vessels. The hypoxic microenvironment that is inevitably generated in solid tumors is a major contributor to tumor angiogenesis. Tumor hypoxia aberrantly modulates the expression of many potent pro -and antiangiogenic molecules, primarily through the action of heterodimeric transcription factorstermed hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1 and HIF-2. The disruption of the balance between pro-and antiangiogenic activities eventually leads to a shift in balance to a more angiogenic state. These findings have provoked considerable interest in HIFs as attractive targets for cancer therapy. Consequently, the development of small molecule HIF inhibitors is currently moving ahead at a fast pace.
Kanazawa I.,The University of Shimane
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012
Adiponectin has attracted widespread attention because of its pivotal role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Adiponectin and its receptor are shown to be expressed in osteoblasts, suggesting that adiponectin might affect bone metabolism. A number of clinical studies have shown that serum adiponectin is negatively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and positively with biochemical markers of bone turnover, suggesting that adiponectin may be a negative regulator of bone mass. However, most in vitro studies demonstrate that adiponectin stimulates the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts as well as the expression of osteocalcin. Adiponectin indirectly stimulates osteoclast differentiation via receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B ligand and osteoprotegerin expression in osteoblasts, while adiponectin directly inhibits osteoclast activity and bone resorption. These in vitro findings suggest that adiponectin stimulates bone formation and remodeling as well as inhibits bone resorption. In contrast, previous in vivo studies using overexpression and knockout mice of adiponectin have produced controversial results. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that osteocalcin derived form osteoblasts acts as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass. Osteocalcin could decrease fat pads and stimulate the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes, suggesting that bone metabolism is associated with fat metabolism through adiponectin and osteocalcin. In this review, I summarize the effect of adiponectin on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo, the association of adiponectin with BMD and bone markers in humans, and the role of adiponectin in the endocrine loop between bone and fat metabolism. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.
Ozoe Y.,The University of Shimane
Advances in Insect Physiology | Year: 2013
γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA)- and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GABACls and GluCls) are members of the Cys-loop receptor channel family. Both channels are widely distributed in the nervous system of invertebrates and function as neurotransmitter receptors to mediate inhibitory synaptic transmission. These receptor channels are important targets for widely used insecticides and parasiticides. Diverse noncompetitive antagonists, including the phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil, inhibit inhibitory neurotransmission by binding to a site deep within the pentameric channel. Macrocyclic lactones, such as the insecticide/parasiticide avermectin, activate GluCls by irreversibly binding to the subunit interfaces. Recent genome sequencing and molecular biology studies have revealed a diversity of subunit isoforms arising from the duplication, alternative splicing, and RNA editing of the genes encoding these channels in various insect species, which may lead to physiological and pharmacological diversification of the receptor channels. Fipronil resistance due to target-site insensitivity in GABACls is a growing concern in several insect pest species. Nevertheless, identification of new chemistry and multiple potential binding sites for agonists, antagonists, and modulators in these channels suggests potential for developing novel pest control chemicals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Matsuoka Y.,The University of Shimane
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2012
Toevaluate the effect of removing epiretinal membranes (ERMs) on visual function and vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) for 12 months postoperatively. Idiopathic ERMs were removed during vitrectomy in 26 eyes. The VR-QOL was evaluated using a self-administered 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire before (baseline) and 3 and 12 months postoperatively. During the same periods, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and metamorphopsia score were recorded. At baseline and months 3 and 12, the logMAR BCVAs (mean ± SEM) were 0.41 ± 0.05, 0.17 ± 0.04 (P = 0.0001 versus baseline), and 0.10 ± 0.03 (P < 0.0001 versus baseline, P = 0.0016 versus month 3), respectively; the CMTs (μm) were 402 ± 18, 312 ± 9 (P < 0.0001 versus baseline), and 300 ± 7 (P < 0.0001 versus baseline, P = 0.0544 versus month 3); and the metamorphopsia scores were 202 ± 29, 137 ± 27 (P = 0.0186 versus baseline), and 108 ± 26 (P = 0.0005 versus baseline, P = 0.0218 versus month 3). In 23 (88%) of 26 eyes, the BCVA improved more than 0.1 logMAR unit at month 12. The improved BCVA was correlated with improvements in two subscales (r = -0.405 to -0.574, P = 0.0041-0.0427) at month 3; the improved metamorphopsia score was correlated with the improved composite score (r = -0.552, P = 0.0058) and three subscales (r = -0.458 to -0.507, P = 0.0113-0.0219) at month 12. Removing ERMs improved visual function, anatomy, and the VR-QOL. Three months postoperatively, the improved BCVA was the most important factor related to the improved VR-QOL, although the simultaneous cataract surgery might have had a confounding effect. The improved metamorphopsia was the important factor associated with improved VR-QOL 12 months postoperatively.(www.umin.ac.jp/ctr number, UMIN000000617).
Sanken Electric Co. and The University of Shimane | Date: 2015-01-21
A DC-DC converter includes a coupling transformer that has windings 11 and 12, switches (Tr1, Tr2) that are connected through the windings to both ends of a DC power source Vi, a series circuit that is connected to both ends of each of the switches and includes a diode and a smoothing capacitor, and a controller 100 that alternately turns on the switches Tr1 and Tr2 and simultaneously turns on the switches Tr1 and Tr2 for a predetermined overlapping period on every half cycle. The coupling transformer 1 includes an I-shaped core 4, two E-shaped cores 2 and 3 holding the I-shaped core 4 between them, and a gap 5 formed between each of center legs 2a and 3a of the E-shaped cores 2 and 3 and the I-shaped core 4. The windings 11 and 12 are wound around the I-shaped core 4.