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Lindsay, OK, United States

The University of Oklahoma Health science Center is the health science branch of the University of Oklahoma. Located in Oklahoma City, it serves as the primary place of instruction for many of Oklahoma's health professions. It is one of only four health centers in the United States with seven professional colleges.The nineteen buildings that make up the OUHSC campus occupies a fifteen block area in Oklahoma City near the Oklahoma State Capitol. Surrounding these buildings are an additional twenty health-related buildings some of which are owned by the University of Oklahoma. The Health science Center is the core of a wider complex known as the Oklahoma Health Center. The major clinical facilities on campus are part of OU Medicine and include the OU Medical Center hospital complex, The Children's Hospital, OU Physicians and OU Children's Physicians clinics, Harold Hamm Diabetes Center and the Peggy and Charles Stephenson Oklahoma Cancer Center. Also part of the major clinical facilities is the Oklahoma City VA Medical Center. Wikipedia.

McEver R.P.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Zhu C.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

Rolling adhesion on vascular surfaces is the first step in recruiting circulating leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitors, or platelets to specific organs or to sites of infection or injury. Rolling requires the rapid yet balanced formation and dissociation of adhesive bonds in the challenging environment of blood flow. This review explores how structurally distinct adhesion receptors interact through mechanically regulated kinetics with their ligands to meet these challenges. Remarkably, increasing force applied to adhesive bonds first prolongs their lifetimes (catch bonds) and then shortens their lifetimes (slip bonds). Catch bonds mediate the counterintuitive phenomenon of flow-enhanced rolling adhesion. Force-regulated disruptions of receptor interdomain or intradomain interactions remote from the ligand-binding surface generate catch bonds. Adhesion receptor dimerization, clustering in membrane domains, and interactions with the cytoskeleton modulate the forces applied to bonds. Both inside-out and outside-in cell signals regulate these processes. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Ramesh R.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Current gene therapy | Year: 2015

Exosomes are 30-100 nm bodies secreted from almost all types of cells into the extracellular spaces. They enclose in their lumen active genetic information in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA), micro RNA (miRNA), DNA and active peptides that are representative of the parental cell and can be isolated from different body fluids. Exosomes can participate in inter-cellular communication by trafficking molecules to their target cells. Because they can stably carry cargo including miRNA, mRNA, and proteins and can pass through stringent biological barriers (e.g., blood brain barrier) without eliciting an immune response, they are considered as an ideal acellular vehicle for drug delivery. In this review, we describe the structure and biogenesis of exosomes and new directions related to their role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases, especially for cancer. We also discuss potential challenges associated with exosomes that should be addressed before exosome-based therapy can be applied to clinical settings. Source

Cunningham M.W.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Purpose of review: To give an overview of the current hypotheses of the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever and group A streptococcal autoimmune sequelae of the heart valve and brain. Recent findings: Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from rheumatic heart disease have provided evidence for crossreactive autoantibodies that target the dominant group A streptococcal epitope of the group A carbohydrate, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), and heart valve endothelium, laminin and laminar basement membrane. T cells in peripheral blood and in rheumatic heart valves revealed the presence of T cells crossreactive with streptococcal M protein and cardiac myosin. For initiation of disease, evidence suggests a two-hit hypothesis for antibody attack on the valve endothelium with subsequent extravasation of T cells through activated endothelium into the valve to form granulomatous lesions and Aschoff bodies. Autoantibodies against the group A streptococcal carbohydrate epitope GlcNAc and cardiac myosin and its peptides appear during progression of rheumatic heart disease. However, autoantibodies against collagen that are not crossreactive may form because of the release of collagen from damaged valve or to responses to collagen bound in vitro by certain serotypes of streptococci. In Sydenham chorea, human mAbs derived from disease target the group A carbohydrate epitope GlcNAc and gangliosides and dopamine receptors found on the surface of neuronal cells in the brain. Human mAbs and autoantibodies in Sydenham chorea were found to signal neuronal cells and activate calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in neuronal cells and recognize the intracellular protein biomarker tubulin. Summary: To summarize, pathogenic mechanisms of crossreactive autoantibodies which target the valve in rheumatic heart disease and the neuronal cell in Sydenham chorea share a common streptococcal epitope GlcNAc and target intracellular biomarkers of disease including cardiac myosin in the myocardium and tubulin, a protein abundant in the brain. However, intracellular antigens are not believed to be the basis for disease. The theme of molecular mimicry in streptococcal autoimmune sequelae is the recognition of targeted intracellular biomarker antigens such as cardiac myosin and brain tubulin, while targeting extracellular membrane antigens such as laminin on the valve surface endothelium or lysoganglioside and dopamine receptors in the brain. Antibody binding to these cell surface antigens may lead to valve damage in rheumatic heart disease or neuropsychiatric behaviors and involuntary movements in Sydenham chorea. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Esmon C.T.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2014

Great advances have been made in recent years in understanding the haemostatic system and the molecular and cellular basis of thrombus formation. Although directly targeting factor Xa or thrombin (factor IIa) for effective anticoagulation is now well established, evidence has emerged suggesting that factor Xa and thrombin are involved in other physiological and pathophysiological cellular processes, including inflammation. These non-haemostatic activities of factor Xa and thrombin are predominantly mediated via the activation of proteinaseactivated receptors. Studies have indicated a potential role of coagulation proteins (including factor Xa and thrombin) in the progression of disease conditions such as atherothrombosis. Preclinical studies have provided evidence for the effects of direct factor Xa or direct thrombin inhibition beyond anticoagulation, including anti-inflammatory activities and atherosclerotic plaque stabilisation. In this article, the non-haemostatic activities of factor Xa and thrombin and the effects of direct inhibition of these coagulation factors on these activities are summarised. In addition, the potential roles of factor Xa and thrombin in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis are explored and the cardiovascular profiles of rivaroxaban, apixaban and dabigatran etexilate observed in phase III clinical studies are discussed. © Schattauer 2014. Source

Chernausek S.D.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is prevalent worldwide and affects children and adults in multiple ways. These include predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, persistent reduction in stature, and possibly changes in the pattern of puberty. A review of recent literature confirms that the metabolic effects of being born small for gestational age are evident in the very young, persist with age, and are amplified by adiposity. Furthermore, the pattern of growth in the first few years of life has a significant bearing on a person's later health, with those that show increasing weight gain being at the greatest risk for future metabolic dysfunction. Treatment with exogenous human GH is used to improve height in children who remain short after being small for gestational age at birth, but the response of individuals remains variable and difficult to predict. The mechanisms involved in the metabolic programming of IUGR children are just beginning to be explored. It appears that IUGR leads to widespread changes in DNA methylation and that specific "epigenetic signatures" for IUGR are likely to be found in various fetal tissues. The challenge is to link such alterations with modifications in gene expression and ultimately the metabolic abnormalities of adulthood, and it represents one of the frontiers for research in the field. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society. Source

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