The University of Notre Dame Australia is an Australian private Roman Catholic university established in 1989 in the Western Australian port city of Fremantle. Although it is a private university, Notre Dame receives significant government funding. While the university claims "strong collegial links" with the American University of Notre Dame located in Notre Dame, Indiana, they are separate institutions. Wikipedia.
Bassett D.,The University of Notre Dame Australia |
Bassett D.,University of Western Australia
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2012
Objective: Bipolar affective disorder and borderline personality disorder have long been considered to have significant similarities and comorbidity. This review endeavours to clarify the similarities and differences between these disorders, with an effort to determine whether they reflect different forms of the same illness or separate illness clusters.Method: The published literature relating to bipolar affective disorders, borderline personality disorders, and related areas of knowledge was reviewed using searches of several electronic databases (AMED, CINHAL, Embase, Ovid, ProQuest, MEDLINE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect) and published texts. These findings were combined with the personal clinical experience of the author, and information gathered from colleagues, to create a review of this topic.Results: Bipolar affective disorders and borderline personality disorders differ with respect to sense of self, disruption of relationships, family history of bipolar disorders, the benefits of medications, the extent of cognitive deficits, the form of affective dysregulation and mood cycling, the incidence of suicide and suicide attempts, the form of psychotic episodes, the incidence of early sexual abuse but not early trauma in general, the loss of brain substance, alterations in cortical activity, glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. They are similar with respect to non-specific features of affective dysregulation, the incidence of atypical depressive features, the incidence of self-mutilation, the incidence of transporter polymorphisms, possible genetic linkages, overall reduction in limbic modulation, reduction in the size of hippocampi and amygdala, and the incidence of sleep disruption.Conclusions: This review concludes that bipolar affective disorders and borderline personality disorder are separate disorders, but have significant elements in common. © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists.
Hamilton R.,The University of Notre Dame Australia
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice | Year: 2013
This article questions a number of widely held views of the role of values in psychotherapy. It begins with a discussion of the now largely discredited view that psychotherapy can be value free. It also broadens this challenge to question the popular idea that values form an inescapable part of the therapeutic encounter. While this view is correct in outline, it is necessary to reject the underlying conception of values as largely arbitrary preferences that the client and the therapist bring to the encounter, as this fails to do justice to the inherently ethical nature of psychotherapy. It argues that we should recover the Greek notion of therapy as essentially concerned with the character of a person. In other words, the goal of therapy is virtue. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Novak I.,The University of Notre Dame Australia
Clinical Rehabilitation | Year: 2011
Objective: To summarize evidence on effective home programme intervention for adults and describe characteristics of successful home programmes.Data sources: A search was conducted of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, DARE, The Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, OTSeeker and Google Scholar and references in manuscripts retrieved.Review methods: Two independent reviewers determined whether retrieved study abstracts met inclusion criteria: human subjects; adults; home programme intervention; systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials or controlled trials. Included papers were appraised for study design, participants, type and intensity of intervention, and outcomes. Methodological quality of trials was rated using the PEDro scale (1-10 highest).Results: Thirty-two papers were retrieved (6 systematic reviews, 26 trials). The 23 randomized controlled trials and 3 controlled trials were appraised. All the retrieved papers were level 1a, 1b or 2b evidence. Major findings were: (a) home programme intervention was more effective than no intervention at all; (b) home programme intervention was equally effective to expert-provided therapy, except when therapeutic modalities were used; and (c) different instruction formats produced similar outcomes. Home programmes with favourable outcomes were more likely to: involve the patients in establishing the programme; intervene on the person, task and environment; and provide feedback about progress. Dose did not appear to be related to outcome.Conclusion: There is grade 1A evidence supporting the effectiveness of home programmes for adults. Home programmes are as effective as expert-provided therapy. © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Hamilton R.P.,The University of Notre Dame Australia
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice | Year: 2010
Philosophical discussions of health and disease have traditionally been dominated by a debate between normativists, who hold that health is an inescapably value-laded concept and naturalists, such as Christopher Boorse, who believe that it is possible to derive a purely descriptive or theoretical definition of health based upon biological function. In this paper I defend a distinctive view which traces its origins in Aristotles naturalistic ethics. An Arisotelian would agree with Boorse that health and disease are ubiquitous features of the natural world and thus not mere projections of human interests and values. She would differ from him in rejecting the idea that value is a non-natural quality. I conclude my discussion with some comments of the normative character of living systems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mendz G.L.,The University of Notre Dame Australia
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology | Year: 2013
Infection-related preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity; knowledge of bacterial populations invading the amniotic cavity and the routes of invasion is required to make progress in the prevention of preterm birth. Significant advances have been made in understanding bacterial communities in the vagina, but much less studied are intra-uterine bacterial populations during pregnancy. A systematic review of data published on the intra-uterine microbiome was performed; molecular information and summaries of species found in healthy individuals and in women with diagnosed infections served to construct a database and to analyse results to date. Thirteen studies fulfilled the review's inclusion criteria. The data of various investigations were collated, organized, and re-analyzed to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of microbial populations in the intra-amniotic space. The most common intra-amniotic bacterial taxa were species that can colonies the vagina in health and disease; there were others associated with the habitats of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. The results suggest a central role for the ascending route of infections during pregnancy, and point to a possible secondary contribution via haematogenous invasion of the intra-amniotic space. The complete census of the intra-uterine microbiome awaits completion.
Bennett C.C.,The University of Notre Dame Australia
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2013
Five years on from the establishment of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission, it is timely to review the context for reform and some of the actions taken to date, and to highlight remaining areas of concern and priority. The Commission's final report was released in July 2009 and presented 123 recommendations organised under four reform themes: Taking responsibility: individual and collective action to build good health and wellbeing - by people, families, communities, health professionals, employers, health funders and governments Connecting care: comprehensive care for people over their lifetime Facing inequities: recognise and tackle the causes and impacts of health inequities Driving quality performance: leadership and systems to achieve best use of people, resources and evolving knowledge. Overall, the Australian Government's response to the Commission's report has been very positive, but challenges remain in some key areas: Financial sustainability and the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and state governments Getting the best value from the health dollar by reducing inefficiency and waste and using value-based purchasing across the public and private health sectors National leadership across the system as a whole Getting the right care in the right place at the right time Health is about more than health care - increasing focus on prevention and recognising and tackling the broader social determinants of health.
Mcneil N.M.,The University of Notre Dame Australia
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2014
Most elementary school children in the United States have difficulties understanding mathematical equivalence in symbolic form (e.g., 3 + 4 = 5 + 2, 7 = 7). This is troubling because a formal understanding of mathematical equivalence is necessary for success in algebra and all higher level mathematics. Historically, children's difficulties with mathematical equivalence have been attributed to something that children lack relative to adults (e.g., domain-general logical structures, working memory capacity, proficiency with basic arithmetic facts). However, a change-resistance account suggests that children's difficulties are due to inappropriate generalization of knowledge constructed from overly narrow experience with arithmetic. This account has not only enhanced our understanding of the nature of children's difficulties with mathematical equivalence but also helped us identify some of the malleable factors that can be changed to improve children's understanding of this concept. © 2014 The Author. Child Development Perspectives © 2014 The Society for Research in Child Development.
Mendz G.L.,The University of Notre Dame Australia
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010
Objective: To examine the relationships between clinical or histological chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy using a meta-analysis approach. Data Sources: A systematic review of the literature appeared in PubMed between 2000 and 2009 was conducted using the search terms "cerebral palsy" and "infection," with broad-scope variations in terminology of "white matter damage," "periventricular leukomalacia," "cystic periventricular leukomalacia," "chorioamnionitis," "intrauterine infection," "intraventricular hemorrhage," "funisitis," "fetal inflammatory response," "early neonatal sepsis," "neurological impairment," "virus," "bacteria," "fungi," and "protozoa," with variations of suffixes (eg, "viral," "bacterial," "fungal," "protozoan," etc), and "urinary tract infection," "bacterial vaginosis," "bacteriuria," and "cytokines." The related key words "gestational age," "small for gestational age," "preterm," and "low birth weight" also were added to the search terms. Only studies published in English were included. Methods: Three hundred eight articles were retrieved and systematically reviewed independently by two authors. Application of four inclusion criteria led to 15 studies being considered for data abstraction. An exposure was considered relevant if it met the established criteria for clinical or histological chorioamnionitis. The outcome was a diagnosis of cerebral palsy in accordance with established criteria. Results: The data were abstracted onto standard forms, correlated according to eight characteristics, and tabulated. Twelve of the 15 studies contained information on the association between clinical chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy, and eight studies included information on the association between histological chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy. The results indicated that there were significant associations between clinical chorioamnionitis or histological chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy, for clinical chorioamnionitis (χ12=13.91; P<.001) with a pooled odds ratio of 2.42 (95% confidence interval 1.52-3.84), and for histological chorioamnionitis (χ12=6.86; P=.009) with a pooled odds ratio of 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.89). The data suggested increased risks of 140% and 80% for neonates exposed to clinical chorioamnionitis or histological chorioamnionitis, respectively. Conclusion: The significant association of clinical or histological chorioamnionitis with cerebral palsy suggested that clinical strategies to prevent or reduce chorioamnionitis would lead to a reduction in cerebral palsy. The culture techniques currently used to diagnose the presence of pathogenic microorganisms during pregnancy need to improve, both in their methodology and in the length of time they require. © 2010 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Hoyne G.F.,The University of Notre Dame Australia
Clinical and Developmental Immunology | Year: 2011
The immune system must balance the need to maintain a diverse repertoire of lymphocytes to be able to fight infection with the need to maintain tolerance to self-proteins. The immune system places strict regulation over the ability of T cells to produce the major T cell growth factor interleukin 2 as this cytokine can influence a variety of immune outcomes. T cells require the delivery of two signals, one through the antigen receptor and a second through the costimulatory receptor CD28. The immune system uses a variety of E3 ubiquitin ligases to target signaling proteins that function downstream of the TCR and CD28 receptors. Mutations in these E3 ligases can lead to a breakdown in immune tolerance and development of autoimmunity. This paper will examine the role of a range of E3 ubiquitin ligases and signaling pathways that influence the development of T-cell effector responses and the development of organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Gerard F. Hoyne.
Nzovak I.,The University of Notre Dame Australia
Journal of Child Neurology | Year: 2014
Safer and more effective interventions have been invented for children with cerebral palsy, but the rapid expansion of the evidence base has made keeping up-to-date difficult. Unfortunately, outdated care is being provided. The aims were to survey the questions parents asked neurologists and provide evidence-based answers, using knowledge translation techniques. Parents asked the following questions: (1) what's wrong with my baby? An algorithm for early diagnosis was proposed. (2) What is cerebral palsy and what online resources are current? Reputable information websites were sourced and hyperlinks provided. (3) The prognosis? Prognostic data from meta-analyses were summarized in an infographic. (4) What interventions offer the most evidence-supported results? Systematic review data about the most effective interventions was mapped into a bubble chart infographic. Finally, (5) What can we expect? Predictors and facilitators of good outcomes were summarized. This article provides an overview of the most up-to-date diagnostic practices and evidence-based intervention options. © The Author(s) 2014.