Atlantic City, MT, United States
Atlantic City, MT, United States

The University of Montana Western is a public university located in Dillon, Montana, United States. It is affiliated with The University of Montana and is part of the Montana University System. The school was founded in 1893 as Montana State Normal School. The basis upon the founding of this college was as a center for training teachers. It was formerly known as Western Montana College before becoming part of the Montana University System in 2000. Enrollment as of fall 2011 was 1,379 students. Wikipedia.


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Zaspel C.E.,The University of Montana Western
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2017

The magnetostatic energy is calculated for a magnetic vortex in a noncircular elliptical nanodisk. It is well-known that the energy of a vortex in the circular disk is minimized though an ansatz that eliminates the magnetostatic charge at the disk edge. Beginning with this ansatz for the circular disk, a conformal mapping of a circle interior onto the interior of an ellipse results in the magnetization of the elliptical disk. This magnetization in the interior of an ellipse also has no magnetostatic charge at the disk edge also minimizing the magnetostatic energy. As expected the energy has a quadratic dependence on the displacement of the vortex core from the ellipse center, but reflecting the lower symmetry of the ellipse. Through numerical integration of the magnetostatic integral a general expression for the energy is obtained for ellipticity values from 1.0 to about 0.3. Finally a general expression for the gyrotropic frequency as described by the Thiele equation is obtained. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Bondarenko P.V.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Galkin A.Y.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Ivanov B.A.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Ivanov B.A.,Taras Shevchenko National University | Zaspel C.E.,The University of Montana Western
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

The dispersion relations of collective oscillations of the magnetic moment of magnetic dots arranged in square-planar arrays and having magnetic moments perpendicular to the array plane are calculated. The presence of the external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of array, as well as the uniaxial anisotropy for single dot are taken into account. The ferromagnetic state with all the magnetic moments parallel and chessboard antiferromagnetic state are considered. The dispersion relation yields information about the stability of different states of the array. There is a critical magnetic field below which the ferromagnetic state is unstable. The antiferromagnetic state is stable for small enough magnetic fields. Here the dispersion relations for collective modes for two phases, ferromagnetic and chessboard antiferromagnetic, within the whole Brillouin zone, are calculated. Nonstandard behavior of the mode frequencies on the wave vector is present for many cases. As the value of the wave vector approaches zero, for both phases a nonanalytic behavior of the mode frequency is found. For ferromagnetic state, the center of the Brillouin zone corresponds to a nonparabolic minimum, common to that is known for continuous thin films. For antiferromagnetic state, the saddle point with nonanalytic dependence of the components of the wave vector is located at small values of the wave vector. Nontrivial Van Hove anomalies are also found for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Zaspel C.E.,The University of Montana Western
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2015

Abstract Synchronization of two nanopillar oscillators driven by spin torque and coupled through the magnetic dipolar interaction. The dominant mode in each oscillator is gyrotropic motion of the vortex core in an elliptical orbit about the free layer disk center. The dynamic properties of this mode is investigated by solution the coupled Thiele equations with both nanopillar oscillators having identical dimensions, but with a current mismatch. It is noticed that there is a range in the current difference where the oscillators will be synchronized where the vortex gyrotropic motion will be frequency-locked with the radii of gyrotropic motion equal for both disks. There is, however, a phase shift between the gyrotropic motion with the smaller current disk lagging the higher current disk by a few degrees. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Lyon L.M.,The University of Montana Western | Hardesty L.H.,Washington State University
Economic Botany | Year: 2012

Quantifying Medicinal Plant Knowledge among Non-Specialist Antanosy Villagers in Southern Madagascar. Medicinal plant knowledge among non-specialist Antanosy villagers of southeastern Madagascar was investigated in a two-stage study. First, free-listing was used to collect the names of medicinal plants most familiar to local people. Data were organized by habitat and frequency into a short list of the 42 most frequently listed plants by habitat. A second group of interviewees were asked to name health conditions that could be treated with plants on the short list. Age, gender, and dwelling proximity to the forest were tested across the general habitat in which medicinal plants were found: in or near the village, in disturbed buffer areas between the village and the forest, or in the forest itself. Neither age nor gender was significant in free-listing. Naming health conditions treated with specific plants showed that knowledge increases with age and that for all but the oldest age group, women knew more plant uses than men. Women knew more plants from the village and buffer areas, and fewer from the forest than men. The proximity of the home to the forest had no influence on medicinal plant knowledge. The non-specialists interviewed named an average of 14 medicinal plants and most knew an average of 37 uses for 9 of the 42 most common medicinal plants. The most common conditions for people knew of plant treatments were stomach ache, babies' fevers, and several unlisted conditions. Both exotic and endemic plant species were known to the non-specialists indicating that medicinal plant knowledge is being sustained and adapted to changes affecting both the people and their environment. © 2012 The New York Botanical Garden.


Zaspel C.E.,The University of Montana Western
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

Magnetic vortices formed at a nanocontact undergo gyrotropic oscillations when driven by a spin-torque providing potential applications as microwave nano-oscillators; however, to increase the power output it is necessary to use an array of synchronized oscillators. Here a theory is developed for two nanocontact oscillators that are interacting through an intermediate antivortex. The confining potential for the two vortices formed at each nanocontact as well as the antivortex is the Oersted-Ampere field about each nanocontact. Solution of the Thiele equation for this system indicates that the nanocontact vortex oscillators will be phase locked over a wide range of nanocontact currents. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.


Nobel laureates Schultz (1971) and Becker (1964, 1993) reinvigorated the analysis of education investments. Human capital investments that improve cognitive skills for elementary and secondary students have important economic implications. An interdisciplinary, 12-construct technology integration education (TIE) model was developed. The sample consisted of 33 elementary education majors and 23 secondary education majors. Limited correlational and predictive relationships between the motivation variables and TPACK variables were found. However, the empirical evidence revealed new insights about self-determination motivation theory. Intrinsic motivation had a higher, significant positive correlation than extrinsic motivation with three dependent variables, while extrinsic motivation had a higher, significant positive correlation than intrinsic motivation with two dependent variables. These limited findings suggest that complex, contingent relationships exist between motivation variables and TPACK variables. The TIE model advances a robust research agenda for the interdisciplinary field of microhuman capital investments, which includes the education of Millennial preservice teachers. © 2014, Baywood Publishing Co., Inc.


Zaspel C.E.,The University of Montana Western
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

Recent experimental data have indicated that magnetic vortices can be pinned to an impurity at the surface of a nanodisk. Unpinned vortices exhibit a gyrotropic precession frequency that is approximately proportional to the aspect ratio of the disk, L/R, where L and R are the disk thickness and radius, respectively. More recent experimental data have indicated that the gyrotropic frequency of pinned vortices has an approximate R/L dependence for the thin disk, and the vortex is pinned at only one surface of the disk. Pinning of the vortex to one surface of the disk results in a significant contribution to the exchange energy, which is used along with the magnetostatic energy in the Thiele equation to calculate the frequency. This energy results in the R/L dependence as seen in experimental thin disk measurements. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Rizzo C.S.,University of New England at Biddeford | Breitbach A.P.,Saint Louis University | Richardson R.,The University of Montana Western
Journal of Interprofessional Care | Year: 2015

Athletic trainers (ATs) are healthcare providers who work in collaboration with physicians, nurses, physical therapists and others to provide care to physically active individuals. Founded in 1950, the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) represents certified ATs and other individuals who support the athletic training profession. The Board of Certification (BOC) has the only accredited certification program for ATs in USA. It establishes and regularly reviews both the standards for the practice of athletic training and the continuing education requirements for certified ATs. In order to attain certification, candidates must demonstrate successful completion of either a bachelor's degree or master's degree program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) and pass the BOC certification exam. Currently, there are ∼42 000 ATs practicing in USA, with 48 states who regulate their practice. The purpose of this article is to provide a background for the profession of athletic training as well as describe and discuss the importance of including ATs in interprofessional education and practice initiatives. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


Zaspel C.E.,The University of Montana Western | Wysin G.M.,Kansas State University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2014

The Oersted field about a nanocontact on a thin film can nucleate vortex formation in the film, and spin torque will drive the vortex in large-amplitude gyrotropic motion about the nanocontact. In a system where the nanocontact is a center of symmetry, the Oersted field provides the restoring force toward the nanocontact center, and spin torque balances the dissipation force from damping to give a linear dependence of the gyrotropic frequency on nanocontact current. For the lower symmetry case when the nanocontact is placed close to the edge of a film there is a significant magnetostatic force repelling the vortex from the edge as well as a deformation of the vortex structure. Both effects combine to produce an anisotropic restoring force, which in turn result in the existence of a lower critical current for gyrotropic motion and a nonlinear dependence of the gyrotropic frequency on the nanocontact current. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Zaspel C.E.,The University of Montana Western
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2011

A vortexantivortex pair can form in the free layer of a nanocontact device as a result of the Oersted field produced by the current. In a large-scale free layer having uniform magnetization boundary conditions an in-plane external magnetic field will tend to confine the vortexantivortex pair, which undergoes gyrotropic motion about the nanocontact after an initial displacement from the static equilibrium position. With the vortex pinned to a defect at the nanocontact the antivortex dynamics can be isolated and gyrotropic precession of the antivortex will be the dominant mode. The frequency of antivortex precession increases as the external magnetic field increases, and the frequency decreases as the nanocontact current increases. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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