Dodoma, Tanzania

The University of Dodoma
Dodoma, Tanzania

The University of Dodoma is a public university in central Tanzania located in Dodoma, the country's capital. Building is taking place on a 6,000 hectare site in the Chimwaga area about 8 kilometres east of downtown Dodoma.The University of Dodoma was formally established in March 2007 following the signing of the Charter by the President of the United Republic of Tanzania. The first academic programmes commenced in September 2007.In line with Tanzania’s Development Vision 2025, the University of Dodoma, when fully operational, will be able to enroll 50,000 students. This is more than double the size of the University of Dar es Salaam when UDOM opened. Wikipedia.

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Neygebauer I.,The University of Dodoma
Springer Proceedings in Mathematics and Statistics | Year: 2016

Many linear partial differential equations in mathematical physics have the fundamental solutions with singularities. This does not correspond to the real physical situation. The additional terms were introduced into the classical equations using the constitutive laws for internal body interactions and so the MAC models were created. This paper analyzes the boundedness of the fundamental solutions of some MAC models with local internal body forces. The 1D, 2D, and 3D steady state problems are considered. The mechanical models are an elastic string, heat conduction, membrane, plate, linear isotropic elasticity. The Fourier transform is used. The new strength criteria is given. It is shown that the displacements under applied force are finite for membrane, plate and in 2D and 3D elasticity. The bending stresses are finite in plate. The stresses are zero in elasticity problem at the point of applied force but the new strength criteria is working in this case too. The temperatures are finite in case of 2D and 3D point source of heat flux. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Kombe G.G.,The University of Dodoma | Temu A.K.,University of Dar es Salaam
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2017

Although non-edible oil feedstocks are available at a lower price than edible oil feedstocks, their high free fatty acid (FFA) content hinders their direct utilization in the production of biodiesel by alkali-catalyzed transesterification. In this study, the steam deacidification process has been employed in reducing the FFA of crude Jatropha oil before alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The response surface methodology (RSM) established on the central composite design (CCD) was used to model and optimize the steam deacidification efficiency under two process variables, namely, temperature and amount of steam. The optimum conditions for deacidification efficiency of 98.74% were found to be the temperature of 235 °C and the amount of steam of 3.4% (w/w) of the feedstock. These conditions reduce the high FFA of crude Jatropha oil from 4.54 to 0.09%, which is below 1% recommended for base-catalyzed transesterification. The deacidified crude Jatropha oil was then transesterified using a homogeneous base catalyst and gave a conversion of 97.45%. The tested fuel properties of biodiesel, such as viscosity at 40 °C, acid value, gross calorific value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content, and density at 15 °C, were found to be comparable to those of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

The direct dependence of humans on ecosystem services is by far strongest in developing regions where poverty restricts access to resources. This dependency also makes people in developing countries more sensitive to climate change than their developed counterparts. Increasing human populations deteriorates natural habitat, biodiversity and ecosystems services which spiral into poverty and low human welfare. This calls for innovative solutions that encompass the entire socio-ecological-economic system, as recognized on a global scale in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, innovative and practical solutions require downscaling to regional levels for identifying concrete sets of drivers of change. For Africa specifically, the interplay of human population growth, land use change, climate change and human well-being is a major challenge. This project focuses on the Serengeti-Maasai Mara Ecosystem and associated agricultural areas, a region in East Africa that encompasses parts of Kenya and Tanzania. The ecosystem is world-famous for key aspects of its biodiversity, such as the migration of 1.3 million wildebeest. This flagship ecosystem role will enhance the international interest in the project. In this project, internationally leading researchers from Norway, the Netherlands, Scotland, Denmark and Germany are teaming up with strong local partners in Tanzania and Kenya. The research will be organised in seven interlinked work packages: 1) assemble and integrate the so far separate Kenyan and Tanzanian relevant data on the region; 2) quantify the connections between human population growth, land use change, climate change and biodiversity change; 3) test how biodiversity change leads to changes in key ecosystem services; 4) quantify the dependence of human livelihoods on these ecosystem services. We will implement innovative ways for communication and dissemination of the results of continuous engagement by local stakeholders.

Vuai S.A.H.,The University of Dodoma | Tokuyama A.,University of Ryukyus
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2011

Okinawa Island is located between mainland Japan to the northeast, Taiwan to the southwest and China to the west. In recent years, precipitation with relatively low pH has been observed in the island during winter seasons. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential sources and factors affecting distribution of trace metals in the atmosphere around the northern area of Okinawa Island. The results showed that the trace metal contamination was low comparable to rural areas of less industrialized countries. The annual average depositions were 6.0, 5.2, 4.4, 2.7 and 20.4kg km-2 y-1 for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn, respectively. The metals in the precipitation were mainly derived from the dissolution of wind-blown soil particles. The distribution of trace metals across the island showed the influence of road traffic as a source and cause of atmospheric pollution. Aluminium and Fe were found to be high closer to the main road and decreased further away from the road, while Zn and Cu were strongly correlated with average mean pH of precipitation. The variation of concentrations in the island was attributed to the distance from the main road, average rain pH at a particular sampling location and wind speed and direction. A strong correlation between lithological elements (Al and Fe) and anthropogenic elements (Zn and Cu) indicates that they were carried by the same particles and experienced similar scavenging mechanism during dissolution process. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Kamat V.R.,University of British Columbia | Nyato D.J.,The University of Dodoma
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010

Background: New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem), popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods. Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results. While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion. Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug. Implementation of ACT-based treatment guidelines must be complemented with educational campaigns to insure that mothers seek prompt help for their children within 24 hours of the onset of fever. Improved communication between health care providers and mothers of sick children can facilitate better adherence to ALu's recommended dosage. Community level interpretations of anti-malarials are multifaceted; integrating knowledge of local beliefs and practices surrounding consumption of anti-malarials into programmatic goals can help to significantly improve malaria control interventions. © 2010 Kamat and Nyato; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Macheyeki A.S.,The University of Dodoma
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

The Kabanga Ni-Cu sulfide deposits and the Luhuma Ni-Cu sulfide prospect are located in NW Tanzania roughly 200. km SW of Lake Victoria. Both areas are within the Meso-Proterozoic Karagwe-Ankolean tectonic domain, which consists of medium grade metasedimentary rocks, that are intruded by mafic to ultramafic intrusions, late syn- and post-orogenic granites.The two Ni-Cu sulfide deposits found in the Kabanga area are Kabanga Main and Kabanga North deposits; both of these deposits are associated with ultramafic rocks. The ore zones are classified into (1) those located within ultramafic rocks, (2) those detached from ultramafic rocks and located within metasedimentary rocks and (3) those located at the contact between ultramafic rocks and metasedimentary rocks.This paper focuses on the identification of element ratios (or lithogeochemical vectors) which could be used for target generation and prediction of mineralized zone(s) from the surface in order to avoid missing of ore targets due to complexities of leaching and trace element mobilization in soils.To do this, drill cores from Kabanga North and from Kabanga Main Ni-Cu sulfide ores were sampled. Core samples from the drill holes were selected in such a way that, at least each ore interval and associated lithologic units (ultramafic/metasedimentary rocks) were well represented. Core sampling was also undertaken in the Luhuma prospect. Soil sample lines were established in proximity of the sampled drill cores from Kabanga ore deposits and Luhuma prospect. Soil samples were taken and analyzed for trace elements.The most useful element ratios are (Pd/V) × 1000 and [(Pd/V)/(Cu/Cr)] × 100; V, Cr and Cu are in ppm and Pd is in ppb. These ratios were derived based on element variations in detached and contact ores. The results were corroborated by the Principal Component analytical data, which groups elements into clusters reflecting their host minerals, e.g. (1) Cr, V and Mo for oxides, (2) Ni, Cu and Pb for sulfides, etc. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Mpondo B.C.T.,The University of Dodoma
Journal of Aging Research | Year: 2016

Globally there is an increase in the number of people living with HIV at an advanced age (50 years and above). This is mainly due to prolonged survival following the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Living with HIV at an advanced age has been shown to be associated with a number of challenges, both clinical and immunological. This minireview aims at discussing the challenges encountered by elderly HIV-infected patients. © 2016 Bonaventura C. T. Mpondo.

Vuai S.A.H.,The University of Dodoma
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2010

The spread of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Zanzibar municipality has been associated with environmental pollution, unpleasant city conditions, contamination of water sources and coastal areas together with harbouring of malaria vectors. The contamination has a close relationship with eruption of diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid which claim the lives of the residents. Most of the wastes are of domestic and market origin and have the potential for compost production. This study examined the possibility of composting MSW from Zanzibar municipality as an alternative way of SW management and assessed the nutrient contents of the compost for application in agricultural production. Two major classes of SW were selected for the study: municipal solid waste and rice milling by-products. The samples were composted aerobically and anaerobically. The results showed that aerobic composting reduced about 60% of the waste volume. This volume reduction suggests that composting can be a promising SW management technique by reducing the large demand of space for landfilling. Municipal solid waste composted under anaerobic conditions produced compost with relatively higher concentrations of dissolved species than that produced under aerobic conditions. The trace metal contents were higher in MSW than in rice milling by-products. It was found that the unmanaged compost collected from the dumping site had low nutrient contents and was enriched with trace metals. Generally, physico-chemical characteristics, nutrients and trace metal levels suggest that Zanzibar municipal solid waste can produce high-quality compost for application to a wide range of soil types to improve their fertility, under proper management. © 2010 The Author(s).

Singh V.,The University of Dodoma
Optik | Year: 2015

In the present paper, self-focusing of two laser beams, having equal frequency (wave number), propagating in cold, homogeneous and underdense plasma has been studied. The polarization vectors of the two beams are considered to be arbitrarily oriented, and lying in a plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. Using source dependent expansion technique, the evolution equations for spot size and phase shift of the laser beams having radial Gaussian profile, is derived. Numerical solutions for simultaneous evolution of the laser spot of the two beams have been obtained. © 2015.

Baha M.R.,The University of Dodoma
Development in Practice | Year: 2016

Debates about optimal farm structure and size have a long history in agricultural economics. Agricultural and development economists argue for an inverse relationship between farm size and productivity, but debates around this remain inconclusive. This article provides a case from maize production in Babati District, Tanzania. The efficiency level of 122 sampled smallholder farmers was estimated and found to be 62.3%, suggesting 37.7% of inefficiencies. A U-shape relationship between plot size and efficiency scores was found. There was high efficiency at plots <2 ha, compared to 2 ha and 3 ha, followed by efficiency at plots >4 ha. Policies stimulating small- and large-scale farms in the country are imperative. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

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