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The University of Buckingham is a private research university located in Buckingham, Buckinghamshire, England, on the banks of the River Great Ouse. It was originally founded as the University College at Buckingham in 1973 and received its Royal Charter from the Queen in 1983.The university's funding regime is not like that of other UK universities, but rather is on the model of many US universities, as it does not receive state funding via HEFCE. It has formal charity status as a non-profit making institution dedicated to the ends of research and education.Buckingham offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees and doctoral degrees through five "schools" of study.The University is one of eight members of the newly formed Independent Universities Group, whose objective is to differentiate their academic credentials from the more commercial elements of the alternative sector. Wikipedia.

Trayhurn P.,University of Liverpool | Trayhurn P.,The University of Buckingham
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2013

The rise in the incidence of obesity has led to a major interest in the biology of white adipose tissue. The tissue is a major endocrine and signaling organ, with adipocytes, the characteristic cell type, secreting a multiplicity of protein factors, the adipokines. Increases in the secretion of a number of adipokines occur in obesity, underpinning inflammation in white adipose tissue and the development of obesity-associated diseases. There is substantial evidence, particularly from animal studies, that hypoxia develops in adipose tissue as the tissue mass expands, and the reduction in PO2 is considered to underlie the inflammatory response. Exposure of white adipocytes to hypoxic conditions in culture induces changes in the expression of >1,000 genes. The secretion of a number of inflammation-related adipokines is upregulated by hypoxia, and there is a switch from oxidative metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis. Glucose utilization is increased in hypoxic adipocytes with corresponding increases in lactate production. Importantly, hypoxia induces insulin resistance in fat cells and leads to the development of adipose tissue fibrosis. Many of the responses of adipocytes to hypoxia are initiated at PO2 levels above the normal physiological range for adipose tissue. The other cell types within the tissue also respond to hypoxia, with the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes being inhibited and preadipocytes being transformed into leptin-secreting cells. Overall, hypoxia has pervasive effects on the function of adipocytes and appears to be a key factor in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

Smith H.L.,Birkbeck, University of London | Waters R.,The University of Buckingham
Regional Studies | Year: 2011

LAWTON SMITH H. andWATERS R. Scientific labour markets, networks and regional innovation systems, Regional Studies.While quality of the labour force in a locality is the single most important component of local competitiveness, the regional innovation systems literature has relatively neglected processes of labour force development. This paper addresses two questions: What is the role of labour markets in the making of regions as innovative systems? and What is the role of labour markets in regional innovation systems? The labour market and specifically the networks that exist between highly skilled workers are positioned at the centre of the analysis, using evidence from the UK high-technology economies of Cambridgeshire and Oxfordshire. © 2011 Regional Studies Association.

Napier W.M.,The University of Buckingham
Special Paper of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2014

Dynamical studies of the asteroid belt reveal it to be an inadequate source of terrestrial impactors of more than a few kilometers in diameter. A more promising source for large impactors is an unstable reservoir of comets orbiting between Jupiter and Neptune. Comets 100-300 km across leak from this reservoir into potentially hazardous orbits on relatively short time scales. With a mass typically 103-104times that of a Chicxulub-sized impactor, the fragmentation of a giant comet yields a highly enhanced impact hazard at all scales, with a prodigious dust influx into the stratosphere over the duration of its breakup, which could be anywhere from a few thousand to a few hundred thousand years. Repeated fireball storms of a few hours' duration, occurring while the comet is fragmenting, may destroy stratospheric ozone and enhance incident ultraviolet light. These storms, as much as large impacts, may be major contributors to biological trauma. Thus, the debris from such comets has the potential to create mass extinctions by way of prolonged stress. Large impact craters are expected to occur in episodes rather than at random, and this is seen in the record of well-dated impact craters of the past 500 m.y. There is a strong correlation between these bombardment episodes and mass extinctions of marine genera. © 2014 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Trayhurn P.,University of Liverpool | Trayhurn P.,The University of Buckingham
Annual Review of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Hypoxia develops in white adipose tissue in obese mice, resulting in changes in adipocyte function that may underpin the dysregulation that leads to obesity-associated disorders. Whether hypoxia occurs in adipose tissue in human obesity is unclear, with recent studies contradicting earlier reports that this was the case. Adipocytes, both murine and human, exhibit extensive functional changes in culture in response to hypoxia, which alters the expression of up to 1,300 genes. These include genes encoding key adipokines such as leptin, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which are upregulated, and adiponectin, which is downregulated. Hypoxia also inhibits the expression of genes linked to oxidative metabolism while stimulating the expression of genes associated with glycolysis. Glucose uptake and lactate release by adipocytes are both stimulated by hypoxia, and insulin sensitivity falls. Preadipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue also respond to hypoxia. The hypoxia-signaling pathway may provide a new target for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Jacobsen H.,The University of Buckingham
Luxury and Power: The Material World of the Stuart Diplomat, 1660-1714 | Year: 2012

This book is a study of the material world of English ambassadors at the end of the seventeenth century and illustrates the way in which architecture and the arts played an important role in diplomatic life. It positions luxury consumption firmly in the political domain and demonstrates the significance of diplomats as cultural intermediaries, highlighting the importance of the material world to politicians and the role that diplomats played in the evolution of artistic appreciation in England.It looks at diplomats abroad: where they lived, what they took with them, and the style in which they lived when away from home. It investigates the ambassadorial household and the role of wives in embassy life, and positions women firmly in the centre of the diplomatic world. It also looks at the extent to which diplomats reacted to their surroundings and the cultures in which they were immersed, and examines their interaction with foreign aesthetic influences. Within the wider context of artistic patronage, not just fine art, it assesses their impact as conduits for the arts, examining their own collecting and the acquisitions they made for their friends and patrons back home. Case studies examine the way in which cultural politics drove the luxury consumption in which so many diplomats indulged and reveal that these patrons displayed a knowledge and understanding of many areas of artistic endeavour that made them indubitable connoisseurs - of architecture, painting, furniture, textiles, silver, and coaches. The book re-evaluates the reputation for artistic patronage of the later Stuart years and finds that the contribution by English diplomats has been sorely neglected.

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