South East, United Kingdom

The University of Buckingham
South East, United Kingdom

The University of Buckingham is a private research university located in Buckingham, Buckinghamshire, England, on the banks of the River Great Ouse. It was originally founded as the University College at Buckingham in 1973 and received its Royal Charter from the Queen in 1983.The university's funding regime is not like that of other UK universities, but rather is on the model of many US universities, as it does not receive state funding via HEFCE. It has formal charity status as a non-profit making institution dedicated to the ends of research and education.Buckingham offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees and doctoral degrees through five "schools" of study.The University is one of eight members of the newly formed Independent Universities Group, whose objective is to differentiate their academic credentials from the more commercial elements of the alternative sector. Wikipedia.

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Napier W.M.,The University of Buckingham
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2015

I find evidence for clustering in age of well-dated impact craters over the last 500 Myr. At least nine impact episodes are identified, with durations whose upper limits are set by the dating accuracy of the craters. Their amplitudes and frequency are inconsistent with an origin in asteroid breakups or Oort cloud disturbances, but are consistent with the arrival and disintegration in near-Earth orbits of rare, giant comets, mainly in transit from the Centaur population into the Jupiter family and Encke regions. About 1 in 10 Centaurs in Chiron-like orbits enter Earth-crossing epochs, usually repeatedly, each such epoch being generally of a few thousand years' duration. On time-scales of geological interest, debris from their breakup may increase the mass of the near-Earth interplanetary environment by two or three orders of magnitude, yielding repeated episodes of bombardment and stratospheric dusting. I find a strong correlation between these bombardment episodes and major biostratigraphic and geological boundaries, and propose that episodes of extinction are most effectively driven by prolonged encounters with meteoroid streams during bombardment episodes. Possible mechanisms are discussed. © 2015 The Authors.

Aubert B.A.,HEC Montréal | Schroeder A.,The University of Buckingham | Grimaudo J.,Accenture
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2012

Precision agriculture (PA) describes a suite of IT based tools which allow farmers to electronically monitor soil and crop conditions and analyze treatment options. This study tests a model explaining the difficulties of PA technology adoption. The model draws on theories of technology acceptance and diffusion of innovation and is validated using survey data from farms in Canada. Findings highlight the importance of compatibility among PA technology components and the crucial role of farmers' expertise. The model provides the theoretical and empirical basis for developing policies and initiatives to support PA technology adoption. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Clapham J.C.,Astrazeneca | Clapham J.C.,The University of Buckingham | Arch J.R.S.,The University of Buckingham
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

The health consequences of the obesity epidemic are a huge burden on patients and society. Yet it remains an unmet therapeutic need. Lifestyle or behaviour modification, although desirable, seems to benefit only a few and bariatric surgery is not an option for all and not without risks. Nevertheless, bariatric surgery is currently the gold standard in terms of weight loss therapy and any weight loss agent will be in combination with management of lifestyle modification. Sadly, there is a poor history for the pharmacological treatment of obesity and repeated safety concerns have attracted intense regulatory scrutiny. Indeed, recent market withdrawals leave us with just one agent approved for the long term treatment of obesity and that is only mildly efficacious in terms of weight loss, although it is beneficial in terms of metabolic health. There are two broad pharmacological approaches that can be applied in obesity drug discovery: reduce intake (or absorption) or increase expenditure (thermogenesis) of calories. In this review we will look at the latter approach. We will cover regulatory requirements and the rationale for this approach. We believe that post-obese subjects display abnormal metabolic responses to weight loss that almost inevitably leads to weight regain. We will then explore a number of approaches that potentially increase thermogenesis in humans. The challenge we have is in accumulating enough human data to validate this approach using drugs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Trayhurn P.,University of Liverpool | Trayhurn P.,The University of Buckingham
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2013

The rise in the incidence of obesity has led to a major interest in the biology of white adipose tissue. The tissue is a major endocrine and signaling organ, with adipocytes, the characteristic cell type, secreting a multiplicity of protein factors, the adipokines. Increases in the secretion of a number of adipokines occur in obesity, underpinning inflammation in white adipose tissue and the development of obesity-associated diseases. There is substantial evidence, particularly from animal studies, that hypoxia develops in adipose tissue as the tissue mass expands, and the reduction in PO2 is considered to underlie the inflammatory response. Exposure of white adipocytes to hypoxic conditions in culture induces changes in the expression of >1,000 genes. The secretion of a number of inflammation-related adipokines is upregulated by hypoxia, and there is a switch from oxidative metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis. Glucose utilization is increased in hypoxic adipocytes with corresponding increases in lactate production. Importantly, hypoxia induces insulin resistance in fat cells and leads to the development of adipose tissue fibrosis. Many of the responses of adipocytes to hypoxia are initiated at PO2 levels above the normal physiological range for adipose tissue. The other cell types within the tissue also respond to hypoxia, with the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes being inhibited and preadipocytes being transformed into leptin-secreting cells. Overall, hypoxia has pervasive effects on the function of adipocytes and appears to be a key factor in adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

Sellahewa H.,The University of Buckingham | Jassim S.A.,The University of Buckingham
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2010

The accuracy of automated face recognition systems is greatly affected by intraclass variations between enrollment and identification stages. In particular, changes in lighting conditions is a major contributor to these variations. Common approaches to address the effects of varying lighting conditions include preprocessing face images to normalize intraclass variations and the use of illumination invariant face descriptors. Histogram equalization is a widely used technique in face recognition to normalize variations in illumination. However, normalizing well-lit face images could lead to a decrease in recognition accuracy. The multiresolution property of wavelet transforms is used in face recognition to extract facial feature descriptors at different scales and frequencies. The high-frequency wavelet subbands have shown to provide illumination-invariant face descriptors. However, the approximation wavelet subbands have shown to be a better feature representation for well-lit face images. Fusion of match scores from low- and high-frequency-based face representations have shown to improve recognition accuracy under varying lighting conditions. However, the selection of fusion parameters for different lighting conditions remains unsolved. Motivated by these observations, this paper presents adaptive approaches to face recognition to overcome the adverse effects of varying lighting conditions. Image quality, which is measured in terms of luminance distortion in comparison to a known reference image, will be used as the base for adapting the application of global and region illumination normalization procedures. Image quality is also used to adaptively select fusion parameters for wavelet-based multistream face recognition. © 2010 IEEE.

Trayhurn P.,University of Liverpool | Trayhurn P.,The University of Buckingham
Annual Review of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Hypoxia develops in white adipose tissue in obese mice, resulting in changes in adipocyte function that may underpin the dysregulation that leads to obesity-associated disorders. Whether hypoxia occurs in adipose tissue in human obesity is unclear, with recent studies contradicting earlier reports that this was the case. Adipocytes, both murine and human, exhibit extensive functional changes in culture in response to hypoxia, which alters the expression of up to 1,300 genes. These include genes encoding key adipokines such as leptin, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which are upregulated, and adiponectin, which is downregulated. Hypoxia also inhibits the expression of genes linked to oxidative metabolism while stimulating the expression of genes associated with glycolysis. Glucose uptake and lactate release by adipocytes are both stimulated by hypoxia, and insulin sensitivity falls. Preadipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue also respond to hypoxia. The hypoxia-signaling pathway may provide a new target for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Jacobsen H.,The University of Buckingham
Luxury and Power: The Material World of the Stuart Diplomat, 1660-1714 | Year: 2012

This book is a study of the material world of English ambassadors at the end of the seventeenth century and illustrates the way in which architecture and the arts played an important role in diplomatic life. It positions luxury consumption firmly in the political domain and demonstrates the significance of diplomats as cultural intermediaries, highlighting the importance of the material world to politicians and the role that diplomats played in the evolution of artistic appreciation in England.It looks at diplomats abroad: where they lived, what they took with them, and the style in which they lived when away from home. It investigates the ambassadorial household and the role of wives in embassy life, and positions women firmly in the centre of the diplomatic world. It also looks at the extent to which diplomats reacted to their surroundings and the cultures in which they were immersed, and examines their interaction with foreign aesthetic influences. Within the wider context of artistic patronage, not just fine art, it assesses their impact as conduits for the arts, examining their own collecting and the acquisitions they made for their friends and patrons back home. Case studies examine the way in which cultural politics drove the luxury consumption in which so many diplomats indulged and reveal that these patrons displayed a knowledge and understanding of many areas of artistic endeavour that made them indubitable connoisseurs - of architecture, painting, furniture, textiles, silver, and coaches. The book re-evaluates the reputation for artistic patronage of the later Stuart years and finds that the contribution by English diplomats has been sorely neglected.

Schroeder A.,The University of Buckingham | Wagner C.,City University of Hong Kong
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The open content creation process has proven itself to be a powerful and influential way of developing text-based content, as demonstrated by the success of Wikipedia and related sites. Distributed individuals independently edit, revise, or refine content, thereby creating knowledge artifacts of considerable breadth and quality. Our study explores the mechanisms that control and guide the content creation process and develops an understanding of open content governance. The repertory grid method is employed to systematically capture the experiences of individuals involved in the open content creation process and to determine the relative importance of the diverse control and guiding mechanisms. Our findings illustrate the important control and guiding mechanisms and highlight the multifaceted nature of open content governance. A range of governance mechanisms is discussed with regard to the varied levels of formality, the different loci of authority, and the diverse interaction environments involved. Limitations and opportunities for future research are provided. © 2012 ASIS & T.

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Knowledge Transfer Partnership | Award Amount: 70.44K | Year: 2016

To build a revolutionary mobile authentication tool called Touchsense based on dynamic signatures to provide mobile users with a high level of security and privacy to protect their confidential information from unauthorised access

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Knowledge Transfer Partnership | Award Amount: 108.90K | Year: 2015

To develop a state-of-art face recognition component in the DualShield multifactor authentication platform to revolutionise the product.

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