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Rochester, United Kingdom

Hamishehkar H.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Emami J.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Najafabadi A.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Gilani K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Powder Technology

The effects of carrier particle size, carrier ratio and addition of fine ternary agents on dry powder inhalation performance of insulin-loaded PLGA microcapsules were investigated. The use of mannitol with larger particle size in the lower carrier/microcapsules ratio led to higher deposition profiles of the drug. The fine spray dried mannitol and spray dried leucine as the ternary agents both decreased the deposition and dispersibility of microcapsules. It was concluded that addition of ternary component does not always improve aerosolization properties of DPI formulations. Carrier particle size, its flowability and carrier-drug ratio were shown to play an important role in DPI formulations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Birch R.E.,The Universities of Kent and Greenwich | Schwiebert E.M.,Discovery Biomedical Inc. | Peppiatt-Wildman C.M.,The Universities of Kent and Greenwich | Wildman S.S.,The Universities of Kent and Greenwich
Frontiers in Physiology

P2X ionotropic non-selective cation channels are expressed throughout the kidney and are activated in a paracrine or autocrine manner following the binding of extracellular ATP and related extracellular nucleotides. Whilst there is a wealth of literature describing a regulatory role of P2 receptors (P2R) in the kidney, there are significantly less data on the regulatory role of P2X receptors (P2XR) compared with that described for metabotropic P2Y. Much of the historical literature describing a role for P2XR in the kidney has focused heavily on the role of P2X1R in the autoregulation of renal blood flow. More recently, however, there has been a plethora of manuscripts providing compelling evidence for additional roles for P2XR in both kidney health and disease. This review summarizes the current evidence for the involvement of P2XR in the regulation of renal tubular and vascular function, and highlights the novel data describing their putative roles in regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes in the kidney. © 2013 Birch, Schwiebert, Peppiatt-Wildman and Wildman. Source

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