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Jordanova T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Cronk R.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Obando W.,The United Nations Childrens Fund Unicef | Kinoshita R.,The United Nations Childrens Fund Unicef | Bartram J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2015

Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Bartram J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Brocklehurst C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Fisher M.B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Luyendijk R.,The United Nations Childrens Fund Unicef | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries' needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally representative and internationally comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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