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Raje N.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Jagannath S.,The Tisch Cancer Institute
Current & Emerging Therapeutics for Multiple Myeloma | Year: 2013

The evolution of therapies for the treatment of multiple myeloma and related plasma cell dyscrasias has succeeded in transforming myeloma into a chronic disease. Conventional chemotherapy has been widely superseded by novel more targeted approaches impacting both the tumor cell and the microenvironment in which it resides. The seven chapters of this book highlight these advances and tackle the current landscape of therapies available to patients. The role of stem cell transplantation in the era of these novel agents is discussed, together with novel approaches under evaluation in early phase trials. This book provides a succinct overview of the evolving treatment paradigm of therapies in myeloma and will provide the reader with the context for use of such therapies. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Misiukiewicz K.,The Tisch Cancer Institute
Anti-cancer drugs | Year: 2014

Accumulating evidence from clinical trials has shown that taxanes are among the most active antitumor agents currently available for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. They are strong enhancers of the efficacy of radiotherapy in locally advanced cancer and are highly potent chemotherapeutic agents in recurrent/metastatic settings. Paclitaxel and docetaxel, prototypes of taxanes, are already well known and used in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, but a newer generation of taxanes is emerging and may possess stronger antitumor activity and/or decreased normal tissue toxicity. Acquired resistance to taxanes has become one of the major therapeutic obstacles, which hopefully will be overcome with a newer generation of taxanes, as our knowledge of the mechanism of resistance has improved. Source

Consonni D.,Epidemiology Unit | Matteis S.D.,Heart Health | Pesatori A.C.,Epidemiology Unit | Bertazzi P.A.,Epidemiology Unit | And 42 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28-1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32-1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93-1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p<0.001). The relative risk was higher for squamous (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42-1.98, 309 cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.44-2.20, 140 cases), than for adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95-1.43, 150 cases) (p-homogeneity: 0.0007). ORs were still elevated after additional adjustment for education and in analyses using blue collar workers as referents. This study provided robust evidence of increased lung cancer risk in bricklayers. Although non-causal explanations cannot be completely ruled out, the association is plausible in view of the potential for exposure to several carcinogens, notably crystalline silica and to a lesser extent asbestos. © 2014 UICC. Source

Mascarenhas J.,The Tisch Cancer Institute | Navada S.,The Tisch Cancer Institute | Malone A.,The Tisch Cancer Institute | Rodriguez A.,The Tisch Cancer Institute | And 3 more authors.
Leukemia Research | Year: 2010

Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal stem cell disorder with the potential to transform to acute leukemia, referred to as myelofibrosis in blast phase (MF-BP). The outcome of patients with MF-BP is grave with a median survival of only 2.7 months. MF-BP is largely refractory to conventional chemotherapy and intensive induction therapy fails to have a significant impact with a median survival of 3.9 months. Eleven consecutive patients were treated at our institution with MF-BP over a 2-year period. Eligible patients with an available donor received an allogeneic stem cell transplant (ASCT) and those that were not eligible or without a donor were treated with Decitabine (DEC). The median time for follow up for the entire group was 9 months (range 5-21 month). At 9 months (range 5-45 months), 67% of the patients treated with DEC were alive and at 20 months (range 9-23 months), 53% of patients treated with ASCT remain alive. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RIC-ASCT) is a viable option that offers the potential for prolonged survival and the possibility of cure for patients with MF-BP. DEC is a tolerable outpatient chemotherapeutic regimen for MF-BP patients ineligible for transplant and deserves further prospective study. © 2010. Source

Baz W.,Appalachian egional Healthcare system | Najfeld V.,The Tisch Cancer Institute | Yotsuya M.,Staten Island University Hospital | Talwar J.,Staten Island University Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology | Year: 2012

We report a 41 year old male with sickle cell disease who developed a myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with complex karyotype involving chromosomes 5, 7 and 17 after 15 years of hydroxyurea treatment. He responded poorly to induction chemotherapy with cytarabine/idarubicin followed by high dose cytarabine and succumbed to neutropenic sepsis. Multiple systematic reviews, observational studies and clinical trials were conducted to identify the toxicity profile of hydroxurea. Only six cases of leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome were identified in patients with sickle cell anemia treated with hydroxyurea. Subsequently, it was concluded that hydroxyurea is not leukemogenic. However, it was noted that most of the published studies had only up to 9 years of follow-up. Our patient was started on hydroxyurea in 1990, before the widespread use of the drug and took hydroxyurea for 15 years. His presentation may reflect an outcome otherwise not yet observed because of the short follow-up of prior studies. We believe that the leukemogenic risk of hydroxyurea should be discussed with the patients and their families. Studies evaluating the adverse effects of hydroxyurea should have longer follow-up before definitive conclusions are drawn. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd. Source

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