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Kotova N.,University of Stockholm | Kotova N.,The Swedish National Food Agency | Frostne C.,University of Stockholm | Abramsson-Zetterberg L.,The Swedish National Food Agency | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Purpose: Nutrients and food constituents can prevent or contribute to genotoxicity. In this study, the possible influence of a vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet on genotoxic effects was investigated in 58 non-smoking healthy vegetarians (V) and non-vegetarians (NV), age 21–37 years from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Methods: Physical activity and dietary habits were similar in both groups, with the exception of the intake of meat and fish. Using flow cytometry, we determined the formation of micronuclei (MN) in transferrin-positive immature peripheral blood reticulocytes (Trf-Ret) (Total: n = 53; V: n = 27; NV: n = 26). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was measured through hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in peripheral erythrocytes (Total: n = 53; V: n = 29; NV: n = 24). Hb adducts of both acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide were monitored as a measure of the corresponding in vivo doses. Results: Our data demonstrated that compared with the non-vegetarians, the vegetarians exhibited lower frequencies of MN (fMN) in the Trf-Ret (p < 0.01, Student’s t test). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that there was no association between the fMN and factors such as age, sex, intake of vitamins/minerals, serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels, physical activity, and body mass index. The mean Hb adduct levels of acrylamide and glycidamide showed no significant differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between the adduct levels and fMN in the individuals. The ratio of the Hb adduct levels from glycidamide and acrylamide, however, showed a significant difference (p < 0.04) between the two groups. Conclusions: These data suggest that the vegetarian diet might be beneficial in lowering genomic instability in healthy individuals. The measured Hb adduct levels indicate that the total intake of acrylamide does not differ between the two studied groups and does not contribute to the observed difference in fMN, although an influence of the diet on the metabolic rates of acrylamide was indicated. In addition, the observed significant difference in the background fMN in the two groups demonstrated that the MN analysis method has a sensitivity applicable to the biomonitoring of human lifestyle factors. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Abramsson-Zetterberg L.,The Swedish National Food Agency | Maurer B.-M.,The Swedish National Food Agency
Toxicology Reports | Year: 2015

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in complex mixtures present in the human environment. Because of the carcinogenic properties of some of these PAHs, they raise concerns regarding healt hand food safety. Because the occurrence of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene (PAH4) are considered markers for other genotoxic PAHs in foodstuffs, the European Union has put a maximum level of PAH4 in some foodstuffs. Fluoranthene (Flu) and phenanthrene (Phe), two other PAHs, arenot classified as genotoxicand are abundant at rather high concentrations in food. Inasmuch as PAH4, Flu, and Phe are metabolized by the same cytochrome P450 pathway system, it is important to clarify whether Phe and Flu influence the genotoxicity of PAH4. We have analyzed the genotoxic response of Phe and Flu, separately and together, as well as in combination with different low doses of PAH4. In all experiments, we used the flow cytometer-based micronucleus test in vivo. Phe and Flu, when administered separately, did not show any dose-related effect on the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE). Nor did a mixture of Phe and Flu change the fMNPCEs. Phe and Flu did not significantly change the fMNPCE of PAH4-exposed FVB and BALB/c mice. © 2015 The Authors.

Abramsson-Zetterberg L.,The Swedish National Food Agency | Darnerud P.O.,The Swedish National Food Agency | Wretling S.,The Swedish National Food Agency
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

In a market basket study made at the National Food Agency in Sweden, in which the most common consumed foodstuffs are sampled, the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and PAH4 (B(a)P, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benz(a)anthracene) were analysed. To this data, results on B(a)P and PAH4 levels originating from a home-barbecue-study on sausages and loin of pork were added. The calculated total mean intake of B(a)P and PAH4 was 50 ng/person and day 276 ng/person and day, respectively. Sugar and sweets, cereal products, meat, and dairy products contributed most to the total intake. In case of PAH concentrations below LOD, 0.03 μg/kg, 1/2 LOD was used in the intake calculations. The highest mean level of B(a)P and PAH4 were found in the barbecued products, but since the estimated consumption in Sweden is low, the contribution to the total food intake is almost negligible, about 2%. The calculated B(a)P levels in food has decreased during the last 10 years and indicates a low cancer risk for the Swedish population. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Abramsson-Zetterberg L.,The Swedish National Food Agency | Carlsson R.,The Swedish National Food Agency | Sand S.,The Swedish National Food Agency
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2013

The use of sensitive test systems makes it possible to detect weakly genotoxic chemicals and to better define the shape of dose-response relationships, which make it easier to interpret the mechanism behind possible effects. In this study we have refined the flow cytometer-based micronucleus assay by use of a cytometer equipped with two lasers. Since micronucleated young polychromatic erythrocytes, MNPCE, are very few in number among the cells in peripheral blood, about one or two out of 100,000 erythrocytes, there is always a risk that other cells, doublets or crystals, by mistake will be classified as a MNPCE. With immunomagnetic separation of the very youngest erythrocytes - which are transferrin-positive (Trf. +. Ret) - prior to analysis, we have obtained an almost pure (>98%) Trf. +. Ret-population. To clarify whether this separation of cells prior to analysis increases the sensitivity of the already sensitive and further refined flow cytometer-based micronucleus assay, we studied the dose-response towards benzo(a)pyrene, B[. a]P in the low-dose region, 0-30. mg/kg. bw. Thirty FVB mice were intraperitoneally injected with B[. a]P. From the same blood samples collected from these mice, cells were prepared in the two different ways and analyzed in the flow-cytometer equipped with two lasers. The lowest dose of B[. a]P that can be reliably determined without being overwhelmed by the estimated error was about the same for the two methods, about 7. mg/kg. bw, i.e. the immunomagnetic separation did not increase the sensitivity. A second study with BalbC mice strengthen. s the result obtained with the FVB mice. Prior to the low-dose study the optimal sampling time for the two methods was determined. In this case, the water-solouble chemical acrylamide was used. The time courses obtained show almost the same shape of the curves, with a maximum of fMNPCE and fMNTrf + Ret at about 40-50 h after exposure. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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