The Swedish Food Administration

Uppsala, Sweden

The Swedish Food Administration

Uppsala, Sweden
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Abramsson-Zetterberg L.,The Swedish Food Administration | Sundh U.B.,The Swedish Food Administration | Mattsson R.,National Veterinary Institute
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2010

Cyanobacteria are sometimes widespread in lakes and can produce potent toxins, which can be dangerous for animals that drink the water, e.g. cattle and dogs. If the toxins are taken up by fish and other organisms in the food chain, or occur in drinking-water, they may pose a problem also for humans. Microcystin-LR, a hepatotoxic cyclic peptide, is one of the most frequently found cyanobacterial toxins. Data on the genotoxic potential of microcystin-LR and other cyanobacterial toxins are contradictory. Here we report results of the micronucleus assay carried out in vivo and in vitro with these toxins. To increase the sensitivity, we used the flow cytometry-based micronucleus assay in the mouse. In this study both pure microcystin-LR and cyanobacterial extracts originating from four different lakes in Sweden were analysed. Although doses up to near lethality were used and an average of 200,000 young erythrocytes, polychromatic erythrocytes, were analysed from each animal, no genotoxic effect was observed, nor could any effect be shown in the in vitro micronucleus study, using human lymphocytes. These results show that the low concentration of microcystins that now and then occur in drinking-water does not increase the cancer risk through chromosome breaks or mal-distribution of chromosomes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Abramsson-Zetterberg L.,The Swedish Food Administration | Svensson K.,The Swedish Food Administration
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2011

Many materials in contact with food, including printing inks, the lack of deeper knowledge about possible toxic effects is a problem. Furthermore, some of these substances are not only produced for packaging of foods, they are produced for a variety of purposes and are not meant to come into direct contact with foodstuffs. Two examples on such chemicals in printing inks are benzophenone and 4-methylbenzophenone. Recently, authorities reported that high levels of the photoinitiator 4-methylbenzophenone had been detected in cereal products. Based on this information we have studied 4-methylbenzophenone and the chemically similar benzophenone using the micronucleus assay in vivo and in vitro. To increase the sensitivity we have used the in vivo flow cytomer-based micronucleus assay in mouse. Although doses up to lethality were used and an average of hundred thousand young erythrocytes, polychromatic erythrocytes, analysed from each animal, no genotoxic effect occurred. The 4-methylbenzophenone was also analysed in the i. n vitro micronucleus assay, using human lymphocytes. The result does not show any dose-related effect. These results show that the occurrence of 4-methylbenzophenone that so far has been detected in foodstuff does not increase the cancer risk through chromosome breaks or mal-distribution of chromosomes. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | The Swedish Food Administration
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology letters | Year: 2011

Many materials in contact with food, including printing inks, the lack of deeper knowledge about possible toxic effects is a problem. Furthermore, some of these substances are not only produced for packaging of foods, they are produced for a variety of purposes and are not meant to come into direct contact with foodstuffs. Two examples on such chemicals in printing inks are benzophenone and 4-methylbenzophenone. Recently, authorities reported that high levels of the photoinitiator 4-methylbenzophenone had been detected in cereal products. Based on this information we have studied 4-methylbenzophenone and the chemically similar benzophenone using the micronucleus assay in vivo and in vitro. To increase the sensitivity we have used the in vivo flow cytomer-based micronucleus assay in mouse. Although doses up to lethality were used and an average of hundred thousand young erythrocytes, polychromatic erythrocytes, analysed from each animal, no genotoxic effect occurred. The 4-methylbenzophenone was also analysed in the in vitro micronucleus assay, using human lymphocytes. The result does not show any dose-related effect. These results show that the occurrence of 4-methylbenzophenone that so far has been detected in foodstuff does not increase the cancer risk through chromosome breaks or mal-distribution of chromosomes.


PubMed | The Swedish Food Administration
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mutation research | Year: 2010

Cyanobacteria are sometimes widespread in lakes and can produce potent toxins, which can be dangerous for animals that drink the water, e.g. cattle and dogs. If the toxins are taken up by fish and other organisms in the food chain, or occur in drinking-water, they may pose a problem also for humans. Microcystin-LR, a hepatotoxic cyclic peptide, is one of the most frequently found cyanobacterial toxins. Data on the genotoxic potential of microcystin-LR and other cyanobacterial toxins are contradictory. Here we report results of the micronucleus assay carried out in vivo and in vitro with these toxins. To increase the sensitivity, we used the flow cytometry-based micronucleus assay in the mouse. In this study both pure microcystin-LR and cyanobacterial extracts originating from four different lakes in Sweden were analysed. Although doses up to near lethality were used and an average of 200,000 young erythrocytes, polychromatic erythrocytes, were analysed from each animal, no genotoxic effect was observed, nor could any effect be shown in the in vitro micronucleus study, using human lymphocytes. These results show that the low concentration of microcystins that now and then occur in drinking-water does not increase the cancer risk through chromosome breaks or mal-distribution of chromosomes.

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