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Ekstrom A.,Gothenburg University | Jutfelt F.,Gothenburg University | Jutfelt F.,The Sven Loven Center for Marine science | Sandblom E.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Thermal Biology | Year: 2014

Predicted future increases in global temperature may impose challenges for ectothermic animals like fish, but the physiological mechanisms determining the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) are not well understood. One hypothesis suggests that impaired cardiac performance, limited by oxygen supply, is an important underlying mechanism. Since vagal bradycardia is suggested to improve cardiac oxygenation and adrenergic stimulation may improve cardiac contractility and protect cardiac function at high temperatures, we predicted that pharmacological blockade of cardiac autonomic control would lower CTmax. Rainbow trout was instrumented with a flow probe and a ventilation catheter for cardioventilatory recordings and exposed to an acute thermal challenge until CTmax following selective pharmacological blockade of muscarinic or β-adrenergic receptors.Contrary to our prediction, CTmax (~26°C) was unchanged between treatments. While β-adrenergic blockade reduced heart rate it did not impair cardiac stroke volume across temperatures suggesting that compensatory increases in cardiac filling pressure may serve to maintain cardiac output. While warming resulted in significant tachycardia and increased cardiac output, a high cholinergic tone on the heart was observed at temperatures approaching CTmax. This may represent a mechanism to maintain scope for heart rate and possibly to improve myocardial contractility and oxygen supply at high temperatures. This is the first study evaluating the importance of autonomic cardiac control on thermal tolerance in fish. While no effects on CTmax were observed, this study raises important questions about the underlying mechanisms determining thermal tolerance limits in ectothermic animals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Jutfelt F.,Gothenburg University | Jutfelt F.,The Sven Loven Center for Marine science | Hedgarde M.,Gothenburg University
Frontiers in Zoology | Year: 2013

Introduction: The rising atmospheric CO2 level is continuously driving the dissolution of more CO2 into the oceans, and some emission scenarios project that the surface waters may reach 1000 μatm by the end of the century. It is not known if fish can detect moderately elevated CO2 levels, and if they avoid areas with high CO2. If so, avoidance behaviour to water with high CO2 could affect movement patterns and migrations of fish in the future. It is also being increasingly recognized that fish behaviour can be altered by exposure to CO2. Therefore this study investigated how long-term exposure to elevated pCO2 affects predator avoidance and CO2 avoidance in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The fish were exposed to control water or CO2-enriched water (1000 μatm) for six weeks before being subjected to tests of behaviour.Results: Despite long term exposure to elevated pCO2 the cod still strongly avoided the smell of a predator. These data are surprising because several coral reef fish have demonstrated reversal of olfactory responses after CO2 exposure, turning avoidance of predator cues into preference for predator cues. Fish from both treatment groups also demonstrated strong avoidance of CO2 when presented with the choice of control or CO2-acidified water, indicating that habituation to the CO2 sensory stimuli is negligible.Conclusions: As Atlantic cod maintained normal behavioural responses to olfactory cues, they may be tolerant to CO2-induced behavioural changes. The results also suggest that despite the long-term exposure to CO2-acidified water, the fish still preferred the control water over CO2-acidified water. Therefore, in the future, fish may alter their movements and migrations in search of waters with a lower CO2 content. © 2013 Jutfelt and Hedgärde; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Guihen D.,National University of Ireland | White M.,National University of Ireland | Lundalv T.,The Sven Loven Center for Marine science
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2013

The Tisler cold-water coral reef is a 2. km long reef in the north-eastern Skagerrak, Norway. The reef is comprised principally of Lophelia pertusa at depths between 70 and 160. m. Velocity shear and boundary layer shear stresses have been measured at Tisler Reef to quantify the effect of the reef structure on the benthic boundary layer (BBL) dynamics. Two different approaches to estimating the magnitude of the near seabed stress were employed: using a logarithmic (constant stress) boundary layer approach and direct Reynolds stress measurements. Resultant estimates of near seabed stresses using both methods were comparable. Using the logarithmic layer approach to estimate seabed stresses both inside and out of the reef structure demonstrated that, for any particular impinging flow strength, higher shear stresses were observed within the live coral region than in the dead coral rubble region with no live coral stands. Bottom shear stresses of up to 3.5Nm-2 were measured within the reef complex and 1.2Nm-2 in the rubble region outside the live reef. This difference is due to large roughness length scales inside the rough living coral area relative to the smaller scales in the coral rubble. Low frequency acoustic backscatter data, used as a proxy for relative suspended particulate matter concentrations, suggested that both local re-suspension and advection of suspended material most likely occur at, and through, the reef system. The high stresses measured inside the living reef may favour corals by increasing the degree of re-suspension for a given current speed and providing more particulates to the filter feeding polyps. © 2013. Source

Kreiss C.M.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Michael K.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Lucassen M.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Jutfelt F.,Gothenburg University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology | Year: 2015

Ocean warming and acidification are threatening marine ecosystems. In marine animals, acidification is thought to enhance ion regulatory costs and thereby baseline energy demand, while elevated temperature also increases baseline metabolic rate. Here we investigated standard metabolic rates (SMR) and plasma parameters of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after 3–4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO2 levels (550, 1200 and 2200 µatm) and at two temperatures (10, 18 °C). In vivo branchial ion regulatory costs were studied in isolated, perfused gill preparations. Animals reared at 18 °C responded to increasing CO2 by elevating SMR, in contrast to specimens at 10 °C. Isolated gills at 10 °C and elevated PCO2 (≥1200 µatm) displayed increased soft tissue mass, in parallel to increased gill oxygen demand, indicating an increased fraction of gill in whole animal energy budget. Altered gill size was not found at 18 °C, where a shift in the use of ion regulation mechanisms occurred towards enhanced Na+/H+-exchange and HCO3 − transport at high PCO2 (2200 µatm), paralleled by higher Na+/K+-ATPase activities. This shift did not affect total gill energy consumption leaving whole animal energy budget unaffected. Higher Na+/K+-ATPase activities in the warmth might have compensated for enhanced branchial permeability and led to reduced plasma Na+ and/or Cl− concentrations and slightly lowered osmolalities seen at 18 °C and 550 or 2200 µatm PCO2 in vivo. Overall, the gill as a key ion regulation organ seems to be highly effective in supporting the resilience of cod to effects of ocean warming and acidification. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

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