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Laguna Hills, CA, United States

Mittra I.,The Surgical Center
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011

The incidence of breast cancer in developing countries is rapidly on the rise, and cancers are generally detected at advanced stages when a cure is not possible. If advanced cancers could be down-staged by earlier detection, many lives can be saved. However, can a screening program be successfully implemented in these countries? A high level of compliance at every level of a screening program is essential for its success. In the absence of a high level of awareness, compounded by a fatalistic attitude to life, the necessary level compliance may not be achieved. Furthermore, in view of a relatively low incidence, many women will have to be screened to detect a breast cancer; and hence a screening program may not be cost effective. It is not clear which is the best screening test to be employed; although clinical breast examination would seem appropriate, there is currently no randomized evidence that it would lead to mortality reduction. The most reasonable approach to breast cancer control in developing countries would be to provide the minimal level of cancer care that will reduce mortality and suffering, as well as to enlighten the population about the benefits of early detection using innovative approaches. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER)+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER- breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers - included TNBCs - is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. © 2014 Suba.

Cairns P.,The Surgical Center
Cancer Biomarkers | Year: 2011

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) has the highest mortality rate of the genitourinary cancers and the incidence of RCC has risen steadily. If detected early, RCC is curable by surgery although a minority are at risk of recurrence. Increasing incidental detection and an ageing population has led to active surveillance as an option for patients with small renal masses. RCC is heterogeneous and comprises several histological cell types with different genetics, biology and behavior. The identification of the genes predisposing to inherited syndromes with RCC has provided much of our knowledge of the molecular basis of early sporadic RCC. Many of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are mutated leading to pathway dysregulation in RCC remain to be elucidated. Global studies of copy number, gene sequencing, gene expression, miRNA expression and gene methylation in primary RCC will lead towards this goal. The natural history of RCC indicated by candidate precursor lesions, multifocal or bilateral disease, growth rate of small renal masses under surveillance, and high risk populations provide insight into the behavior of this disease. The use of molecular markers for early detection and prognosis merits more attention with ongoing advances in omics technologies. This review focuses on early RCC, that is disease confined within the renal capsule. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

This White Paper summarizes the state of readiness of combat surgeons and provides action recommendations that address the problems of how to train, sustain, and retain them for future armed conflicts. As the basis for the 2014 Scudder Oration, I explored how to secure an improved partnership between military and civilian surgery, which would optimize learning platforms and embed military trauma personnel at America's academic medical universities for trauma combat casualty care (TCCC). To craft and validate these recommendations, I conducted an integrative and iterative process of literature reviews, interviews of military and civilian leaders, and a survey of military-affiliated surgeons. The recommended action points advance the training of combat surgeons and their trauma teams by creating an expanded network of TCCC training sites and sourcing the cadre of combat-seasoned surgeons currently populating our civilian and military teaching hospitals and universities. The recommendation for the establishment of a TCCC readiness center or command within the Medical Health System of the Department of Defense includes a military and civilian advisory board, with the reformation of a think tank of content experts to address high-level solutions for military medicine, readiness, and TCCC. © 2015 American College of Surgeons.

Meric-Bernstam F.,The Surgical Center | Mills G.B.,University of Houston
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Personalized cancer therapy is based on the precept that detailed molecular characterization of the patient's tumour and its microenvironment will enable tailored therapies to improve outcomes and decrease toxicity. The goal of personalized therapy is to target aberrations that drive tumour growth and survival, by administering the right drug combination for the right person. This is becoming increasingly achievable with advances in high-throughput technologies to characterize tumours and the expanding repertoire of molecularly targeted therapies. However, there are numerous challenges that need to be surpassed before delivering on the promise of personalized cancer therapy. These include tumour heterogeneity and molecular evolution, costs and potential morbidity of biopsies, lack of effective drugs against most genomic aberrations, technical limitations of molecular tests, and reimbursement and regulatory hurdles. Critically, the 'hype' surrounding personalized cancer therapy must be tempered with realistic expectations, which, today, encompass increased survival times for only a portion of patients. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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