Cairns P.,The Surgical Center
Cancer Biomarkers | Year: 2011
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) has the highest mortality rate of the genitourinary cancers and the incidence of RCC has risen steadily. If detected early, RCC is curable by surgery although a minority are at risk of recurrence. Increasing incidental detection and an ageing population has led to active surveillance as an option for patients with small renal masses. RCC is heterogeneous and comprises several histological cell types with different genetics, biology and behavior. The identification of the genes predisposing to inherited syndromes with RCC has provided much of our knowledge of the molecular basis of early sporadic RCC. Many of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are mutated leading to pathway dysregulation in RCC remain to be elucidated. Global studies of copy number, gene sequencing, gene expression, miRNA expression and gene methylation in primary RCC will lead towards this goal. The natural history of RCC indicated by candidate precursor lesions, multifocal or bilateral disease, growth rate of small renal masses under surveillance, and high risk populations provide insight into the behavior of this disease. The use of molecular markers for early detection and prognosis merits more attention with ongoing advances in omics technologies. This review focuses on early RCC, that is disease confined within the renal capsule. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
Suba Z.,The Surgical Center
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2014
Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER)+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER- breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers - included TNBCs - is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. © 2014 Suba.
Mittra I.,The Surgical Center
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011
The incidence of breast cancer in developing countries is rapidly on the rise, and cancers are generally detected at advanced stages when a cure is not possible. If advanced cancers could be down-staged by earlier detection, many lives can be saved. However, can a screening program be successfully implemented in these countries? A high level of compliance at every level of a screening program is essential for its success. In the absence of a high level of awareness, compounded by a fatalistic attitude to life, the necessary level compliance may not be achieved. Furthermore, in view of a relatively low incidence, many women will have to be screened to detect a breast cancer; and hence a screening program may not be cost effective. It is not clear which is the best screening test to be employed; although clinical breast examination would seem appropriate, there is currently no randomized evidence that it would lead to mortality reduction. The most reasonable approach to breast cancer control in developing countries would be to provide the minimal level of cancer care that will reduce mortality and suffering, as well as to enlighten the population about the benefits of early detection using innovative approaches. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Huston J.M.,The Surgical Center
Surgical Infections | Year: 2012
Background: The immune system protects the host against dangerous pathogens and toxins. The central nervous system is charged with monitoring and coordinating appropriate responses to internal and external stimuli. The inflammatory reflex sits at the crossroads of these crucial homeostatic systems. This review highlights how the vagus nerve-mediated inflammatory reflex facilitates rapid and specific exchange of information between the nervous and immune systems to prevent tissue injury and infection. Methods: Review of the pertinent English-language literature. Nearly two decades of research has elucidated some of the essential anatomic, physiologic, and molecular connections of the inflammatory reflex. The original descriptions of how these key components contribute to afferent and efferent anti-inflammatory vagus nerve signaling are summarized. Results: The central nervous system recognizes peripheral inflammation via afferent vagus nerve signaling. The brain can attenuate peripheral innate immune responses, including pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leukocyte recruitment, and nuclear factor kappa β activation via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit-dependent, T-lymphocyte-dependent, vagus nerve signaling to spleen. This efferent arm of the inflammatory reflex is referred to as the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway." Activation of this pathway via vagus nerve stimulation or pharmacologic α7 agonists prevents tissue injury in multiple models of systemic inflammation, shock, and sepsis. Conclusions: The vagus nerve-mediated inflammatory reflex is a powerful ally in the fight against lethal tissue damage after injury and infection. Further studies will help translate the beneficial effects of this pathway into clinical use for our surgical patients. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Karpeh Jr. M.S.,The Surgical Center
Digestive Surgery | Year: 2013
Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is often diagnosed in the late stages of the disease. Surgical resection of all gross and microscopic disease is essential for curative treatment. Complete resection is often not achievable when patients present with advanced stage IV cancer. In the absence of symptoms, chemotherapy without resection has been the standard of care in most major centers. With improvements in response to chemotherapy and less invasive surgical approaches, patients with metastatic gastric cancer have had better survival outcomes than in the past. The challenge today when treating these patients is in defining who will benefit from more aggressive interventions. Reviewing the literature for guidance is difficult because the goals of treatment are often not clearly defined. Finding the proper balance of aggressiveness needed to extend survival while preserving and maximizing quality of life is a decision that clinicians have to make with increasing frequency. This review will attempt to provide a framework to aid in determining what role, if any, gastrectomy has in the management of patients with stage IV gastric cancer. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Schwab C.W.,The Surgical Center
Journal of the American College of Surgeons | Year: 2015
This White Paper summarizes the state of readiness of combat surgeons and provides action recommendations that address the problems of how to train, sustain, and retain them for future armed conflicts. As the basis for the 2014 Scudder Oration, I explored how to secure an improved partnership between military and civilian surgery, which would optimize learning platforms and embed military trauma personnel at America's academic medical universities for trauma combat casualty care (TCCC). To craft and validate these recommendations, I conducted an integrative and iterative process of literature reviews, interviews of military and civilian leaders, and a survey of military-affiliated surgeons. The recommended action points advance the training of combat surgeons and their trauma teams by creating an expanded network of TCCC training sites and sourcing the cadre of combat-seasoned surgeons currently populating our civilian and military teaching hospitals and universities. The recommendation for the establishment of a TCCC readiness center or command within the Medical Health System of the Department of Defense includes a military and civilian advisory board, with the reformation of a think tank of content experts to address high-level solutions for military medicine, readiness, and TCCC. © 2015 American College of Surgeons.
Spotnitz W.D.,The Surgical Center
World journal of surgery | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND: Fibrin sealant is a two-component topical hemostat, sealant, and tissue adhesive consisting of fibrinogen and thrombin that has been used in the United States as a blood bank- or laboratory-derived product since the 1980s and has been commercially available since 1998. METHODS/RESULTS: Initially, surgeons employed hospital-based materials because of the lack of availability of a commercially produced agent. At present, there are five U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved forms including products derived from pooled or autologous human plasma as well as bovine plasma. On-label indications include hemostasis, colonic sealing, and skin graft attachment. Recent clinical and experimental uses include tissue or mesh attachment, fistula closure, lymphatic sealing, adhesion prevention, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. CONCLUSIONS: The modern literature on fibrin sealant now exceeds 3000 articles and continues to expand. This brief review presents the history of this material, its present clinical use, and its future applications.
St. Andre A.,The Surgical Center
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015
Leaders of critical care services require knowledge and skills not typically acquired during their medical education and training. Leaders possess personality characteristics and evolve and adopt behaviors and knowledge in addition to those useful in the care of patients and rounding with an ICU team. Successful leaders have impeccable integrity, possess a service mentality, are decisive, and speak the truth consistently and accurately. Effective leaders are thoughtful listeners, introspective, develop a range of relationships, and nurture others. They understand group psychology, observe, analyze assumptions, decide, and improve the system of care and the performance of their team members. A leader learns to facilely adapt to circumstance, generate new ideas, and be a catalyst of change. Those most successful further their education as a leader and learn when and where to seek mentorship. Leaders understand their organization and its operational complexities. Leaders learn to participate and knowledgeably contribute to the fiscal aspects of income, expense, budget, and contracts from an institutional and department perspective. Clinician compensation must be commensurate with expectations and be written to motivate and make clear duties that are clinical and nonclinical. A leader understands and plans to address the evolving challenges facing healthcare, especially resource constraints, the emotions and requirements of managing the end of life, the complexities of competing demands and motivations, the bureaucracy of healthcare practice, and reimbursement. Responsibilities to manage and evolve must be met with intelligence, sensitivity, and equanimity. © 2015 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
Burger R.A.,The Surgical Center
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2011
Objective: To review the rationale for targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways for anti-angiogenic therapy in patients with ovarian cancer and to summarize the currently available data with agents that block these pathways. Methods: Relevant papers and studies were identified by searches conducted on Medline using the terms angiogenesis, ovarian cancer, VEGF, PDGF, FGF, receptor, kinase, and inhibitor alone or in combination as well as by searches by drug name and by review of abstracts presented at recent oncology meetings. Results: The VEGF pathway is considered to be the key driver of angiogenesis, but the PDGF and FGF pathways also play important roles and may contribute to resistance to VEGF-specific blockade. Each pathway may also promote tumorigenesis; tumor cell overexpression of these growth factors and their receptors have been detected in ovarian tumor specimens, suggesting that autocrine loops may lead to tumor growth and progression. Selective inhibitors of the VEGF pathway (e.g., bevacizumab and VEGF Trap) as well as VEGF/PDGF pathway inhibitors (e.g., sorafenib and sunitinib) and VEGF/PDGF/FGF pathway inhibitors (e.g., cediranib, pazopanib, and BIBF 1120) have shown single-agent activity in women with ovarian cancer in phase II trials. Response rates of up to 21% have been reported with several agents in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Phase III trials with many anti-angiogenic agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer are currently ongoing. Conclusions: Anti-angiogenic agents may provide an improvement in the treatment of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer and may be useful when incorporated into first-line platinum/taxane therapy. It remains to be determined whether multitargeted agents will offer greater clinical benefit than specific VEGF pathway inhibitors. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
The Surgical Center | Date: 2014-07-24
Tool mount adaptors for interfacing a medical instrument with a medical insertion device are provided. The tool mount adaptor includes a collar for holding a medical instrument wherein the tool mount adaptor is releasably attachable to the medical insertion device. Cannula holder assemblies for a medical insertion device are also provided. The cannula holder assembly includes: (a) a cannula track; and (b) a cannula carriage slideably mounted on the cannula track comprising a cannula holder mount and a demobilizer. Medical insertion devices comprising the tool mount adaptors and/or cannula holder assemblies are also provided together with methods of using the medical insertion devices in diagnostic and/or therapeutic applications.