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Campbell M.A.,P.A. College | Gleichsner A.,P.A. College | Hilldorfer L.,P.A. College | Horvath D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Suttle J.,The Sugar Lab
Functional and Integrative Genomics | Year: 2012

Abstract The suppression of sprout growth is critical for the long-term storage of potato tubers. 1,4-Dimethylenapthlene (DMN) is a new class of sprout control agent but the metabolic mode of action for this compound has yet to be elucidated. Changes in transcriptional profiles of meristems isolated from potato tubers treated with the DMN were investigated using an Agilent 44 K 60-meroligo microarray. RNA was isolated from nondormant Russet Burbank meristems isolated from tubers treated with DMN for 3 days or activated charcoal as a control. RNA was used to develop probes that were hybridized against a microarray developed by the Potato Oligo Chip Initiative. Analysis of the array data was conducted in two stages: total array data was examined using a linear model and the software Limma and pathway analysis was conducted by linking the potato sequences to the Arabidopsis thaliana. DMN elicited a change in a number of transcripts associated with cold responses, water regulation, salt stress, and osmotic adjustment. DMN also resulted in a repression of cyclin or cyclin-like transcripts. DMN also resulted in a 50% decrease in thymidine incorporation suggesting a repression of the S phase of the cell cycle. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that DMN increased transcripts for the cell cycle inhibitors KRP1 and KRP2. We conclude the DMN results in alteration of genes associated with the maintenance of a G1/S phase block possibly through the induction of the cell cycle inhibitors KRP1 and KRP2. ©Springer-Verlag 2011.

Campbell M.A.,P.A. College | Gleichsner A.,P.A. College | Alsbury R.,P.A. College | Horvath D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Suttle J.,The Sugar Lab
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) are used to control postharvest sprouting of potato tubers. CIPC alters microtubule structure and function resulting in inhibition of cell division. The mechanism of action of DMN is unknown but, because it is a natural product found in potato tubers, there is speculation that it inhibits sprout growth by prolonging the dormant state. To address this issue, the effects of CIPC and DMN on abscisic acid (ABA) content and gene expression in potato tuber meristems were determined and compared to those found in dormant and non-dormant meristems. Dormancy progression was accompanied by a dramatic decline in ABA content and the ABA levels in meristems isolated from CIPC- and DMN- treated tubers were identical to the levels found in nondormant meristems demonstrating that sprout repression is not a function of elevated ABA. Evaluation of transcriptional profiles using cDNA microarrays demonstrated that there were similarities between CIPC- and DMN- treated tuber tissues particularly in transcripts that encode phosphatases and proteins associated with oxygen-related metabolism. Despite these similarities, there were significant differences in transcript profiles derived from treatment with either CIPC or DMN and the dormant state. These results suggested the mechanisms-of -action of DMN and CIPC are distinct and not due to a prolongation of the normal dormant condition. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hill A.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Hill A.L.,Ohio State University | Reeves P.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Larson R.L.,Syngenta | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Fusarium yellows, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (Fob), can lead to significant yield losses in sugar beet. This fungus is variable in pathogenicity, morphology, host range and symptom production, and is not a well characterized pathogen on sugar beet. From 1998 to 2003, 86 isolates of F. oxysporum and 20 other Fusarium species from sugar beet, along with four F. oxysporum isolates from dry bean and five from spinach, were obtained from diseased plants and characterized for pathogenicity to sugar beet. A group of sugar beet Fusarium isolates from different geographic areas (including nonpathogenic and pathogenic F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum and F. avenaceum), F. oxysporum from dry bean and spinach, and Fusarium DNA from Europe were chosen for phylogenetic analysis. Sequence data from β- tubulin, EF1α and ITS DNA were used to examine whether Fusarium diversity is related to geographic origin and pathogenicity. Parsimony and Bayesian MCMC analyses of individual and combined datasets revealed no clades based on geographic origin and a single clade consisting exclusively of pathogens. The presence of FOB and nonpathogenic isolates in clades predominately made up of Fusarium species from sugar beet and other hosts indicates that F. oxysporum f. sp. betae is not monophyletic. No claim to original US government works. Plant Pathology © 2010 BSPP.

PubMed | University of Padua and The Sugar Lab
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of plant research | Year: 2016

In this study, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.) were grown at different K(+)/Na(+) concentrations: mmol/L, 3/0 (control); 0.03/2.97 (K-Na replacement group; T(rep)); 0.03/0 (K deficiency group; T(def)) in order to investigate the effects of K(+) deficiency and replacement of K(+) by Na(+) on plant proteomics, and to explore the physiological processes influenced by Na(+) to compensate for a lack of K(+). After 22days, fresh and dry weight as well as the Na(+) and K(+) concentration were measured and changes in proteomics were tested by 2D gel electrophoresis. Interestingly, Na(+) showed stimulation in growth of seedlings and hindrance of K(+) assimilation in T(rep). Significant changes were also observed in 27 protein spots among the treatments. These are proteins involved in photosynthesis, cellular respiration, protein folding and degradation, stress and defense, other metabolisms, transcription related, and protein synthesis. A wide range of physiological processes, including light reaction, CO2 assimilation, glycolysis, and tricaboxylic acid cycle, was impaired owing to K(+) starvation. Compensating for the effect of K(+) starvation, an increase in photosynthesis was also observed in T(rep). However, we also found a limitation of cellular respiration by Na(+). Na(+) is therefore in some ways able to recover damage due to K deficiency at protein level, but cannot functionally replace K as an essential nutrient.

Hideki T.,The Sugar Lab | Yuri B.,The Sugar Lab | Katsuhiko M.,The Sugar Lab
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2011

To investigate the influence of cyclodextrin (CD) on the pungent taste of α- lipoic acid, a 0.05% (w/v) aqueous solution of α- lipoic acid in which CD (or dextrin) was added was evaluated by a sensory test and a liquid taste analyzer. Data from the liquid taste analyzer were used to compare the taste intensities ofα- lipoic acid alone andα- lipoic acid supplemented with CD. The sensory test showed that the pungent taste of α- lipoic acid reduced significantly with the addition of 1.5% α-CD and γ-CD (w/v). The liquid taste analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in the taste ofα- lipoic acid in the order ofα-CD > G2-β-CDR> β-CD > dextrin > γ-CD > IsoeleatRP, and a reduction in the taste of α- lipoic acid supplemented with 3.0% (w/v) CD in the order of α-CD > γ-CD = IsoeleatR P. In conclusion, it was suggested that α-CD significantly reduced the pungent taste of α- lipoic acid due to the formation of a poorly water-soluble inclusion complex and the interaction between α- lipoic acid and α- C D in solution.

Takahashi H.,The Sugar Lab | Bungo Y.,The Sugar Lab | Mikuni K.,The Sugar Lab
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

We investigated the effects of various cyclodextrins (CDs) on the aqueous solubility and thermal stability of α-lipoic acid, a compound with low water solubility. α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD had little effect on the aqueous solubility of a-lipoic acid. In contrast, 6-O-α-maltosyl-CDs increased it in a concentration-dependent manner, 6-O-α-maltosyl-β-CD enhancing solubility the most. The thermal stability of α-lipoic acid in the solid state was improved by the addition of G2-β-CD®, a commercial product of 6-O-α-maltosyl-β-CD. The thermal stability of α-lipoic acid was also improved by the addition of β-CD. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that G2-β-CD®, a mixture of maltosyl-β-CDs, and β-CD efficiently formed complexes with α-lipoic acid. These results suggest that the sizes and shapes of these β-CD compounds are compatible with complexation with α-lipoic acid. Moreover, both the formation of an aqueous complex with G2-β-CD ® and an insoluble complex with β-CD increased the thermal stability of α-lipoic acid.

Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

News Article | July 18, 2013

Forget medical applications and guns: when 3D printing is this beautiful, I don't care if the result is only good for sweetening my coffee. Liz and Kyle von Hasseln, from The Sugar Lab, have taken 3D printing to a new level. With a background in architecture, the pair have developed 3D printing processes which allow them to design, digitally model and print weird and wacky sugar sculptures. Brace yourself for a beautiful new world of confectionary. Inspired by the desire to print a birthday cake for a friend, the project hasn't proved straightforward. Now though, two years later, they've succeeded in creating something spectacular. The process uses a mixture of water and alcohol, layer-by-layer to selectively wet and harden a sugar substrate. In essence it's just like normal 3D printing, just optimized for sugar—and the results are pretty sweet. [The Sugar Lab via Ignant]

News Article | July 18, 2013

3D printing has the power to make some really detailed stuff. We know this, but there's one project that really proves just how intricate 3D-printed objects can be. The Sugar Lab creates custom designs for folk out of, well, sugar. Kyle and Liz, the pair behind the lab, decided to work with sugar partly for the challenge, and partly to help a friend find a stunning cake topper for her birthday. The two now print of all kinds of incredible shapes to really excite geometry fans. See the Sugar Lab's full gallery over on its website. Get more GeekTech: Twitter - Facebook - RSS | Tip us off

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