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Campbell M.A.,P.A. College | Gleichsner A.,P.A. College | Alsbury R.,P.A. College | Horvath D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Suttle J.,The Sugar Lab
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) are used to control postharvest sprouting of potato tubers. CIPC alters microtubule structure and function resulting in inhibition of cell division. The mechanism of action of DMN is unknown but, because it is a natural product found in potato tubers, there is speculation that it inhibits sprout growth by prolonging the dormant state. To address this issue, the effects of CIPC and DMN on abscisic acid (ABA) content and gene expression in potato tuber meristems were determined and compared to those found in dormant and non-dormant meristems. Dormancy progression was accompanied by a dramatic decline in ABA content and the ABA levels in meristems isolated from CIPC- and DMN- treated tubers were identical to the levels found in nondormant meristems demonstrating that sprout repression is not a function of elevated ABA. Evaluation of transcriptional profiles using cDNA microarrays demonstrated that there were similarities between CIPC- and DMN- treated tuber tissues particularly in transcripts that encode phosphatases and proteins associated with oxygen-related metabolism. Despite these similarities, there were significant differences in transcript profiles derived from treatment with either CIPC or DMN and the dormant state. These results suggested the mechanisms-of -action of DMN and CIPC are distinct and not due to a prolongation of the normal dormant condition. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Campbell M.A.,P.A. College | Gleichsner A.,P.A. College | Hilldorfer L.,P.A. College | Horvath D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Suttle J.,The Sugar Lab
Functional and Integrative Genomics | Year: 2012

Abstract The suppression of sprout growth is critical for the long-term storage of potato tubers. 1,4-Dimethylenapthlene (DMN) is a new class of sprout control agent but the metabolic mode of action for this compound has yet to be elucidated. Changes in transcriptional profiles of meristems isolated from potato tubers treated with the DMN were investigated using an Agilent 44 K 60-meroligo microarray. RNA was isolated from nondormant Russet Burbank meristems isolated from tubers treated with DMN for 3 days or activated charcoal as a control. RNA was used to develop probes that were hybridized against a microarray developed by the Potato Oligo Chip Initiative. Analysis of the array data was conducted in two stages: total array data was examined using a linear model and the software Limma and pathway analysis was conducted by linking the potato sequences to the Arabidopsis thaliana. DMN elicited a change in a number of transcripts associated with cold responses, water regulation, salt stress, and osmotic adjustment. DMN also resulted in a repression of cyclin or cyclin-like transcripts. DMN also resulted in a 50% decrease in thymidine incorporation suggesting a repression of the S phase of the cell cycle. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that DMN increased transcripts for the cell cycle inhibitors KRP1 and KRP2. We conclude the DMN results in alteration of genes associated with the maintenance of a G1/S phase block possibly through the induction of the cell cycle inhibitors KRP1 and KRP2. ©Springer-Verlag 2011.

Hill A.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Hill A.L.,Ohio State University | Reeves P.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Larson R.L.,Syngenta | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Fusarium yellows, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (Fob), can lead to significant yield losses in sugar beet. This fungus is variable in pathogenicity, morphology, host range and symptom production, and is not a well characterized pathogen on sugar beet. From 1998 to 2003, 86 isolates of F. oxysporum and 20 other Fusarium species from sugar beet, along with four F. oxysporum isolates from dry bean and five from spinach, were obtained from diseased plants and characterized for pathogenicity to sugar beet. A group of sugar beet Fusarium isolates from different geographic areas (including nonpathogenic and pathogenic F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum and F. avenaceum), F. oxysporum from dry bean and spinach, and Fusarium DNA from Europe were chosen for phylogenetic analysis. Sequence data from β- tubulin, EF1α and ITS DNA were used to examine whether Fusarium diversity is related to geographic origin and pathogenicity. Parsimony and Bayesian MCMC analyses of individual and combined datasets revealed no clades based on geographic origin and a single clade consisting exclusively of pathogens. The presence of FOB and nonpathogenic isolates in clades predominately made up of Fusarium species from sugar beet and other hosts indicates that F. oxysporum f. sp. betae is not monophyletic. No claim to original US government works. Plant Pathology © 2010 BSPP.

Stevanato P.,University of Padua | Trebbi D.,University of Padua | Panella L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Richardson K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2015

The beet-cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) is one of the major pests of sugar beet. The identification of molecular markers associated with nematode tolerance would be helpful for developing tolerant varieties. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers linked to nematode tolerance from the Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima source WB242. A WB242-derived F2 population was phenotyped for host-plant nematode reaction revealing a 3:1 segregation ratio of the tolerant and susceptible phenotypes and suggesting the action of a gene designated as HsBvm-1. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used. The most tolerant and susceptible individuals were pooled and subjected to restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) analysis, which identified 7,241 SNPs. A subset of 384 candidate SNPs segregating between bulks were genotyped on the 20 most-tolerant and most-susceptible individuals, identifying a single marker (SNP192) showing complete association with nematode tolerance. Segregation of SNP192 confirmed the inheritance of tolerance by a single gene. This association was further validated on a set of 26 commercial tolerant and susceptible varieties, showing the presence of the SNP192 WB242-type allele only in the tolerant varieties. We identified and mapped on chromosome 5 the first nematode tolerance gene (HsBvm-1) from Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima and released information on SNP192, a linked marker valuable for high-throughput, marker-assisted breeding of nematode tolerance in sugar beet. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

News Article | July 18, 2013
Site: gizmodo.com

Forget medical applications and guns: when 3D printing is this beautiful, I don't care if the result is only good for sweetening my coffee. Liz and Kyle von Hasseln, from The Sugar Lab, have taken 3D printing to a new level. With a background in architecture, the pair have developed 3D printing processes which allow them to design, digitally model and print weird and wacky sugar sculptures. Brace yourself for a beautiful new world of confectionary. Inspired by the desire to print a birthday cake for a friend, the project hasn't proved straightforward. Now though, two years later, they've succeeded in creating something spectacular. The process uses a mixture of water and alcohol, layer-by-layer to selectively wet and harden a sugar substrate. In essence it's just like normal 3D printing, just optimized for sugar—and the results are pretty sweet. [The Sugar Lab via Ignant]

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