Jin J.,Jiangnan University |
Wang Y.,State Key Laboratory of Edible Vegetable Oil Testing |
Su H.,Jiangnan University |
Warda P.,The State University of Zanzibar |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2017
Trans-free mango kernel fat stearins and oleins were produced by three-stage acetone fractionation to achieve the sufficient utilization of fat. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions, slip melting points, iodine values, micronutrient (tocopherol, sterol, and squalene) levels, as well as oxidative stability indexes of the fractions were analyzed to evaluate their qualities. The most abundant fatty acids in the stearins were saturated fatty acids (57.3–65.1%, mainly including palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids), and the major triacylglycerols were symmetrical monounsaturated types (78.3–93.7%). The unique properties make the stearins show highest slip melting points 34.7–38.3°C and oxidative stability indexes (12.0–14.2 h), and very suitable for the manufacturing of hard chocolate fats. The oleins contained high percentages of monounsaturated (48.3–53.7%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (7.8–8.5%). Their oxidative stability indexes (6.3–6.7 h) were lower than the stearins but higher than common commercial oils. About 85.2% of tocopherol, 99.2% of sterol, and 79.2% of squalene were transferred to the liquids after fractionation, which could improve their antioxidant abilities. Further multiple linear regression analyses between oxidative stability indexes and fat compositions revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acid and sterol were the main factors that affect the oxidative stabilities of the fractions. The results suggested that the moderated refining techniques should be developed to retain more sterol to improve the oxidative stabilities and nutritive values of the fats. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Sheikh Y.H.,University of Oslo |
Bakar A.D.,The State University of Zanzibar
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering | Year: 2012
Through a case study of health information system in Zanzibar, Tanzania, the article discusses adoption of free and open source software (FOSS) through strategic transition from a free Microsoft based application to a full-fledged java based FOSS application. Throughout the article, the adoption challenges and opportunities are discussed. The article contributes to approaches to FOSS adoption. Three areas are identified: the technical capacity of the software surpassing licensing terms, the role of local champions in initiating changes, and the importance of user capacity building prior to project adoption especially for a transitional project. © 2012 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.
PubMed | University of Bremen, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS and The State University of Zanzibar
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JMIR research protocols | Year: 2016
Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population, data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards.The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project.A cross-sectional study across 80 randomly selected Shehias (wards) was conducted in 2013 in Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Examinations included all members living in 1 household, face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist and hip circumference, and body composition) were assessed for all household members, blood pressure was taken from participants older than 2 years, and biosamples (urine and blood) from eligible household members were collected. Data collected from the core sample included sociodemographic data, nutritional status, and medical history (hypertension). Physical activity data was collected from a subsample of children between 3 and 16 years of age.A total of 1314 participants (mean age 23.6 18.9 years, 54.54% female) completed all anthropometric measurements and were included in the analysis. Out of which, 98.40% (1293/1314) completed the household members questionnaire, 93.32% (1229/1314) participants older than 2 years completed blood pressure measurements, and 64.31% (845/1314) blood samples were collected from participants older than 5 years. Underweight prevalence for the total study population was 36.53% (480/1314) with the highest prevalence in children under 14 years. Overweight and obesity was highest among females with the prevalence of 7.61% (100/1314) and 6.62% (87/1314), respectively; obesity was rare among male participants.The study provides valuable data to investigate the interplay of socioeconomic, demographic, environmental, physiological, and behavioral factors in the development of diet-related disorders in a representative sample of the Zanzibari population.
PubMed | University of Aarhus and The State University of Zanzibar
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2016
2-methythiol-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine (Irgarol-1051) has been widely used as effective alternative antifouling paint in marine structures including ships. However, it has been causing deleterious effects to marine organisms including reef building corals. The main objective of this study was to establish baseline levels of Irgarol-1051 around coral reefs and nearby ecosystems along coastline of Zanzibar Island. The levels of Irgarol-1051 ranged from 1.35ng/L around coral reefs to 15.44ng/L around harbor with average concentration of 4.11 (mean)0.57 (SD) ng/L. This is below Environmental Risk Limit of 24ng/L as proposed by Dutch Authorities which suggests that the contamination is not alarming especially for coral reef ecosystem health. The main possible sources of the contamination are from shipping activities. This paper provides important baseline information of Irgarol-1051 around the coral reef ecosystems within the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region and may be useful for formulation of marine conservation strategies and policies.
Ali H.R.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu |
Ali H.R.,The State University of Zanzibar |
Arifin M.M.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu |
Sheikh M.A.,The State University of Zanzibar |
And 2 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013
Emerging booster biocides contamination raises particular attention in the marine ecosystem health. This study provides the baseline data on the occurrence of Irgarol-1051 (2-methylthio-4- tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamiono- s-triazine) in the selected coastal water around Malaysia. The maximum detected concentration of Irgarol was 2021. ng/L at Klang West, commercial and cargo port. Coral reef Islands (Redang and Bidong) were relatively less contaminated compared to other coastal areas. The temporal variation revealed that only 1% of 28 stations sampled on November, 2011 was above the environmental risk limit of 24. ng/L as suggested by Dutch Authorities, while in January and April, 2012; 46% and 92% of the stations were above the limit respectively. The present findings demonstrate the wide detection of novel antifouling materials Irgarol-1051 which advocates the need for proper monitoring and conservation strategies for the coastal resources. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | University of Malaysia, Terengganu and The State University of Zanzibar
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2014
The use of antifouling paints to the boats and ships is one among the threats facing coastal resources including coral reefs in recent decades. This study reports the current contamination status of diuron and its behaviour in the coastal waters of Malaysia. The maximum concentration of diuron was 285 ng/L detected at Johor port. All samples from Redang and Bidong coral reef islands were contaminated with diuron. Temporal variation showed relatively high concentrations but no significant difference (P>0.05) during November and January (North-East monsoon) in Klang ports (North, South and West), while higher levels of diuron were detected during April, 2012 (Inter monsoon) in Kemaman, and Johor port. Although no site has shown concentration above maximum permissible concentration (430 ng/L) as restricted by the Dutch Authorities, however, long term exposure studies for environmental relevance levels of diuron around coastal areas should be given a priority in the future.
PubMed | The State University of Zanzibar, University Dan Dicko Dan Koulodo Of Maradi and Jiangnan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016
The interest in application of biocatalysis during natural milk fat flavours development has increased rapidly and lipases have become the most studied group in the development of bovine milk fat flavours. Lipozyme-435, Novozyme-435 and Thermomyces lanuginosus Immobilized (TL-IM) lipases were used to hydrolyze anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and anhydrous buffalo milk fat (ABF) and their volatile flavouring compounds were identified by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and then compared at three hydrolysis intervals. Both AMF and ABF after lipolysis produced high amount of butanoic and hexanoic acids and other flavouring compounds; however, highest amount were produced by Lipozyme-435 and Novozyme-435 followed by TL-IM. The hydrolyzed products were assessed by Rancimat-743 for oxidative stability and found both that, for AMF and ABF treated butter oil, Lipozyme-435 and TL-IM were generally more stable compared to Novozyme-435. For both AMF and ABF treated butter oil, Lipozyme-435 was observed to cause no further oxidation consequences which indicates Lipozyme-435 was stable during hydrolysis at 55C for 24h.
van der Ven R.M.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel |
Triest L.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel |
De Ryck D.J.R.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel |
Mwaura J.M.,Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2016
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the genetic diversity, population structure and connectivity of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora tenuis (Cnidaria; Scleractinia; Acroporidae). Based on the long pelagic larval duration (PLD) of the species, long-distance dispersal resulting in high connectivity among populations is hypothesized. Location: East Africa (Kenya and Tanzania; 2.5°S ~10°S) Methods: A total of 269 samples were collected from 11 sample sites in Kenya and Tanzania spanning a distance of 900 km. The coral fragments were genotyped using seven microsatellite markers. Analyses included population genetic estimations of diversity and population differentiation, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), Bayesian clustering approaches and testing for isolation by distance (IBD). Results: Moderate, but significant, genetic structure was found when comparing all sample sites, but IBD could not be detected. Based on Bayesian cluster analyses three groups of samples sites could be identified: (1) Kenya and northern Tanzania, (2) southern Tanzania and (3) sample sites located in the Zanzibar and Pemba channels. Main conclusions: High connectivity can be explained by the long-distance dispersal capacity of A. tenuis and by the influence of the northbound East African Coastal Current facilitating dispersal by effectively spreading larvae along the coast. Oceanographic characteristics rather than distance are factors that determine connectivity among populations of A. tenuis in Kenya and Tanzania. No clear genetic break was identified. However, variable connectivity between sample sites does occur, with limited connectivity of the sample sites Misali and Stonetown. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Saleh F.H.,The State University of Zanzibar
East African journal of public health | Year: 2011
Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri. It is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide and is among the largest causes of global cancer mortality. Human papilloma virus (HPV) which is transmitted sexually, particularly subtypes 16 and 18 are responsible for causing majority of cervical cancer cases worldwide. The disease is one of the most preventable and curable carcinomas if detected and treated at an early enough stage. The effective prevention and control of the disease depends on, among others, the effective screening program coupled with knowledge and awareness of women population on the disease's risk factors and available screening services. Pap-test screening that is widely used in Western countries and proved to be effective in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer is not so popular in Tanzania, and so is HPV vaccine. This review examines the literatures on cervical cancer situation and explores various evidence-based cost-effective strategies and approaches that could be employed to confront the rising cervical cancer burden in the country.
Makame Y.M.M.,University of Dar es Salaam |
Mubofu E.B.,University of Dar es Salaam |
Kombo M.A.,The State University of Zanzibar
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia | Year: 2016
The preparation and thermal characteristics of new polyesters from cardol, a renewable monomer obtained as a by-product of the cashew industry, are reported. Cardol - a diol component of the natural product cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was isolated and reacted with adipoyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in a 1:1 molar ratio in hexane and toluene as solvents at 170°C under nitrogen atmosphere. The cardol based polyesters [poly(cardyl adipate) and poly(cardyl terephthalate)] were produced in good yields of up to 63 and 54%, respectively. The polymers were analysed by FT-IR for functional groups elucidation and by combined thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for thermal stability. The cardol-based polyesters were thermally stable up to about 400°C. The thermal stability of poly(cardyl terephthalate) was higher than that of poly(cardyl adipate) under similar conditions. All prepared polyesters were insoluble in common laboratory solvents at room temperature. © 2016 Chemical Society of Ethiopia.