Serebrennikov V.M.,The State Research Institute for Genetics and the Selection of Industrial Microorganisms |
Kotova L.N.,The State Research Institute for Genetics and the Selection of Industrial Microorganisms |
Glazunov A.V.,The State Research Institute for Genetics and the Selection of Industrial Microorganisms
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology | Year: 2014
We investigated the effects of the oxygen supply rate on the activity of pyruvate metabolic pathways and their end products, the lactatedehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvateformiatelyase (PFL), pyruvatedehydrogenase (PDH) and acetolactatesynthase (ALS) pathways, in the Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis bv. diacetylactis strain B2103/74. We found that this culture, apart from inactivated α-acetyldecarboxylase, also possesses a unique natural capacity to overexpress α-acetolactate (AL) up to 25–28 mM. Our search for similar properties among the diacetilicus bv. strains showed that this ability is quite rare. We identified a single additional strain, 7590 from the National Russian Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NRCIM-7590), which displayed a similar capacity. However, unlike B2103/74, NRCIM-7590 has an active α-acetolactate decarboxylase and therefore can only produce acetoin. AL overexpression took place under conditions of intense aeration (KLa ≥ 90–120 h−1), and the composition of the medium played a decisive role in AL productivity. We found that AL overproduction is determined by a diversion of a portion of pyruvate flow from the LDH to the PDH and ALS pathways. We further found that all additional pyruvate, supplied from LDH, is utilized exclusively by the ALS pathway because of the restricted capacity of the PDH pathway. This shift in pyruvate metabolism in the B2103/74 strain, from LDH to PDH and ALS pathways, is associated with the initiation of an oxidation reaction that reduces oxygen to H2O and sequesters NADH from the LDH pathway in the process. A specific manifestation of this reaction in B2103/74 and NRCIM-7590 cultures, which results in a profound shift of the pyruvate metabolism towards the production of α-acetolactate, is due to the function of a potent oxidative system that shifts 75–80% of NADH flow from LDH to the oxidative pathway, resulting in the regeneration of NAD+. The nature of this oxidative system is not known. Based on our studies, we propose that the structure of the newly discovered oxidative system is similar to a simple transmembrane electron transport chain. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.