Celbridge, Ireland
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Plotan M.,Queen's University of Belfast | Elliott C.T.,Queen's University of Belfast | Scippo M.L.,University of Liège | Muller M.,University of Liège | And 5 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

The increasing availability and use of sports supplements is of concern as highlighted by a number of studies reporting endocrine disruptor contamination in such products. The health food supplement market, including sport supplements, is growing across the Developed World. Therefore, the need to ensure the quality and safety of sport supplements for the consumer is essential. The development and validation of two reporter gene assays coupled with solid phase sample preparation enabling the detection of estrogenic and androgenic constituents in sport supplements is reported. Both assays were shown to be of high sensitivity with the estrogen and androgen reporter gene assays having an EC50 of 0.01ngmL-1 and 0.16ngmL-1 respectively. The developed assays were applied in a survey of 63 sport supplements samples obtained across the Island of Ireland with an additional seven reference samples previously investigated using LC-MS/MS. Androgen and estrogen bio-activity was found in 71% of the investigated samples. Bio-activity profiling was further broken down into agonists, partial agonists and antagonists. Supplements (13) with the strongest estrogenic bio-activity were chosen for further investigation. LC-MS/MS analysis of these samples determined the presence of phytoestrogens in seven of them. Supplements (38) with androgen bio-activity were also selected for further investigation. Androgen agonist bio-activity was detected in 12 supplements, antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 16 and partial antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 10. A further group of supplements (7) did not present androgenic bio-activity when tested alone but enhanced the androgenic agonist bio-activity of dihydrotestosterone when combined. The developed assays offer advantages in detection of known, unknown and low-level mixtures of endocrine disruptors over existing analytical screening techniques. For the detection and identification of constituent hormonally active compounds the combination of biological and physio-chemical techniques is optimal. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Cronly M.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Cronly M.,The State Laboratory | Behan P.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Foley B.,Dublin Institute of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2010

A confirmatory method has been developed to allow for the analysis of fourteen prohibited medicinal additives in pig and poultry compound feed. These compounds are prohibited for use as feed additives although some are still authorised for use in medicated feed. Feed samples are extracted by acetonitrile with addition of sodium sulfate. The extracts undergo a hexane wash to aid with sample purification. The extracts are then evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in initial mobile phase. The samples undergo an ultracentrifugation step prior to injection onto the LC-MS/MS system and are analysed in a run time of 26min. The LC-MS/MS system is run in MRM mode with both positive and negative electrospray ionisation. The method was validated over three days and is capable of quantitatively analysing for metronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole, ipronidazole, chloramphenicol, sulfamethazine, dinitolimide, ethopabate, carbadox and clopidol. The method is also capable of qualitatively analysing for sulfadiazine, tylosin, virginiamycin and avilamycin. A level of 100μgkg -1 was used for validation purposes and the method is capable of analysing to this level for all the compounds. Validation criteria of trueness, precision, repeatability and reproducibility along with measurement uncertainty are calculated for all analytes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Malone E.M.,The State Laboratory | Malone E.M.,Queen's University of Belfast | Elliott C.T.,Queen's University of Belfast | Kennedy D.G.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Regan L.,The State Laboratory
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2010

A rapid liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous quantitation and identification of sixteen synthetic growth promoters and bisphenol A in bovine milk has been developed and validated. Sample preparation was straightforward, efficient and economically advantageous. Milk was extracted with acetonitrile followed by phase separation with NaCl. After centrifugation, the extract was purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction with C18 sorbent material. The compounds were analysed by reversed-phase LC-MS/MS using both positive and negative ionization and operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, acquiring two diagnostic product ions from each of the chosen precursor ions for unambiguous confirmation. Total chromatographic run time was less than 10 min for each sample. The method was validated at a level of 1 μg L-1. A wide variety of deuterated internal standards were used to improve method performance. The accuracy and precision of the method were satisfactory for all analytes. The confirmative quantitative liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limit (CCα) and the detection capability (CCβ) were found to be below the chosen validation level of 1 μg L-1 for all compounds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Gallo P.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno | Fabbrocino S.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno | Dowling G.,The State Laboratory | Salini M.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

HPLC with fluorescence detection is considered for confirmatory analysis of group B veterinary drugs by the European Union legislation. A procedure for confirming the presence of anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drug (NSAID) residues in bovine milk by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection is herein described. The native fluorescence of nine drugs belonging to different NSAID sub-classes, namely flurbiprofen, carprofen, naproxen, vedaprofen, 5-hydroxy-flunixin, niflumic acid, mefenamic acid, meclofenamic acid and tolfenamic acid, allowed for detection in bovine milk down to 0.25-20.0 μg/kg. Confirmation of the nine NSAIDs is attained by fluorescence detection at characteristic excitation and emission wavelengths. The procedure described is simple and selective. Limits of quantification (LOQs) ranging between 0.25 and 20 μg/kg were measured; satisfactory trueness and within-laboratory reproducibility data were calculated at LOQ spiking levels, apart from 5-hydroxy-flunixin. The procedure developed is used in our laboratory for confirmation of each one of the above mentioned NSAIDs in bovine milk, to support results after HPLC quantitative analysis with UV-vis detection. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Dowling G.,The State Laboratory | Regan L.,The State Laboratory | Tierney J.,The State Laboratory | Nangle M.,The State Laboratory
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

A rapid method has been developed to analyse morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylegonine, buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, lignocaine, benzylpiperazine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and methadone in human urine. Urine samples were diluted with methanol:water (1:1, v/v) and sample aliquots were analysed by hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with a runtime of 12.5min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, drug identification and confirmation was carried out by library search with a developed in-house MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at a collision energy spread of 35±15 in positive mode and MRM ratios. The method was validated in urine, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least two MRM transitions for each substance were monitored in addition to EPI spectra and deuterated analytes were used as internal standards for quantitation. The reporting level was 0.05μgmL-1 for the range of analytes tested. The regression coefficients (r2) for the calibration curves (0-4μgmL-1) in the study were ≥0.98. The method proved to be simple and time efficient and was implemented as an analytical strategy for the illicit drug monitoring of opioids, cocaines and amphetamines in criminal samples from crime offenders, abusers or victims in the Republic of Ireland. To the best of our knowledge there are no hybrid LC-MS applications using MRM mode and product ion spectra in the linear ion trap mode for opioids, cocaines or amphetamines with validation data in urine. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Dowling G.,The State Laboratory | Malone E.,The State Laboratory | Harbison T.,The State Laboratory | Martin S.,The State Laboratory
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

A sensitive and selective method for the determination of six non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in bovine plasma was developed. An improved method for the determination of authorised and non-authorised residues of 10 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in milk was developed. Analytes were separated and acquired by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS). Target compounds were acidified in plasma, and plasma and milk samples were extracted with acetonitrile and both extracts were purified on an improved solid phase extraction procedure utilising Evolute™ ABN cartridges. The accuracy of the methods for milk and plasma was between 73 and 109%. The precision of the method for authorised and non-authorised NSAIDs in milk and plasma expressed as % RSD, for the within lab reproducibility was less than 16%. The % RSD for authorised NSAIDs at their associated MRL(s) in milk was less than 10% for meloxicam, flunixin and tolfenamic acid and was less than 25% for hydroxy flunixin. The methods were validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Cronly M.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Cronly M.,The State Laboratory | Behan P.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Foley B.,Dublin Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

A confirmatory method was developed to allow for the analysis of eleven nitroimidazoles and also chloramphenicol in milk and honey samples. These compounds are classified as A6 compounds in Annex IV of Council Regulation 2377/90 (European Commission 1990) and therefore prohibited for use in animal husbandry. Milk samples were extracted by acetonitrile with the addition of NaCl; honey samples were first dissolved in water before a similar extraction. Honey extracts underwent a hexane wash to remove impurities. Both milk and honey extracts were evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in initial mobile phase. These were then injected onto a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system and analysed in less than 9 min. The MS/MS was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive and negative electrospray ionization. The method was validated in accordance with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and is capable of analysing metronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole, ipronidazole and there hydroxy metabolites hydroxymetronidazole, 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, and hydroxyipronidazole. The method can also analyse for carnidazole, ornidazole, ternidazole, tinidazole, and chloramphenicol. A recommended level of 3μgl-1/μg kg-1 for methods for metronidazole, dimetridazole, and ronidazole has been recommended by the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) responsible for this substance group, and this method can easily detect all nitroimidazoles at this level. A minimum required performance level of 0.3μg l-1/μg kg -1 is in place for chloramphenicol which the method can also easily detect. For nitroimidazoles, the decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) ranged from 0.41 to 1.55μg l-1 and from 0.70 to 2.64μgl-1, respectively, in milk; and from 0.38 to 1.16μg kg-1 and from 0.66 to 1.98μg kg-1, respectively, in honey. For chloramphenicol, the values are 0.07 and 0.11 μgl-1 in milk and 0.08 and 0.13μgkg-1 in honey. Validation criteria of accuracy, precision, repeatability, and reproducibility along with measurement uncertainty were calculated for all analytes in both matrices. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


A sensitive and selective method for the simultaneous determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in bovine plasma was developed. Confirmatory analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Target compounds were acidified in plasma and extracted with acetonitrile. Sodium chloride was added to assist separation of the plasma and acetonitrile mixture. The acetonitrile extract is then subjected to liquid-liquid purification by the addition of hexane. Accuracy of the methods in plasma was between 93 and 102%. The precision of the method for the basic NSAIDs in plasma expressed as % RSD, for the within-laboratory reproducibility was less than 10%. Decision limit (CCα values) and detection capability (CCβ) values were established. The methods were validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Cronly M.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Cronly M.,The State Laboratory | Behan P.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Foley B.,Dublin Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

A confirmatory multi-residue method has been developed to allow for the detection, confirmation and quantification of eleven coccidiostats in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method can be used to determine halofuginone, robenidine, nicarbazin, diclazuril, decoquinate, semduramicin, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin at levels relating to unavoidable carry over as stated in Regulation 2009/8/EC. Feed samples are extracted with water and acetonitrile with the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium chloride. The extract then undergoes a freezing out step before being diluted and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. The LC-MS/MS system is run in MRM mode with both positive and negative electrospray ionisation and can confirm all eleven analytes in a run time of 19. min. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats at a 0.5% carry over level. The method was validated over three days in accordance with of European legislation; Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation criteria of accuracy, precision, decision limit (CCα), and detection capability (CCβ) along with measurement uncertainty are calculated for all analytes. The method was then successfully used to analyse a number of feed samples that contained various coccidiostat substances. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Athlone Institute of Technology, Liverpool John Moores University, St James's Hospital, The State Laboratory and Trinity College Dublin
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Drug testing and analysis | Year: 2016

This study presents the identification of N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide that was termed 3,5-AB-CHMFUPPYCA. This compound was obtained from a UK-based Internet vendor, who erroneously advertised this research chemical as AZ-037 and which would have been associated with (S)-N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide. The presence of the pyrazole core indicates a bioisosteric replacement of an indazole ring that is frequently associated with synthetic cannabinoids of the PINACA, FUBINACA, and CHMINACA series. The pyrazole ring system present in 3,5-AB-CHMFUPPYCA gives rise to the regioisomer N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (named 5,3-AB-CHMFUPPYCA) and both isomers were synthesized using two specific routes which supported the correct identification of the research chemical as 3,5-AB-CHMFUPPYCA. Both isomers could be conveniently differentiated. Interestingly, a route specific chlorine-containing by-product also was observed during the synthesis of 3,5-AB-CHMFUPPYCA and identified as N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-4-chloro-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide. An extensive analytical characterization included chromatographic, spectroscopic, mass spectrometric platforms as well as crystal structure analysis. The syntheses and analytical characterizations of both AB-CHMFUPPYCA isomers are reported for the first time and serves as a reminder that the possibility of mislabeling of research chemicals cannot be excluded. The pharmacological activities of both AB-CHMFUPPYCA isomers remain to be explored. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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