The State Hermitage Museum

Saint Petersburg, Russia

The State Hermitage Museum

Saint Petersburg, Russia

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Kulkova M.,Herzen State Pedagogical University | Mazurkevich A.,The State Hermitage Museum | Dolbunova E.,The State Hermitage Museum | Regert M.,CNRS Prehistoric, Antique and Middle Age Studies | And 3 more authors.
Radiocarbon | Year: 2015

Radiocarbon dating and research into offset correction for freshwater reservoir effect were conducted at the pile-dwelling site Serteya II, located in the Dvina-Lovat’ basin (northwestern Russia). Cultural layers of this site are situated underwater, hence the unique state of preservation of material culture of the 3rd millennium cal BC.14C dating of different organic materials [wood, hazelnut (Corylus avellana), and elk bones] from this site allows their ages to be correlated and14C age offsets caused by freshwater reservoir effects (hardwater effects) in the dating of materials such as organic crust, pottery, bones, and lake sediments to be estimated. Consideration of the late Neolithic subsistence strategy underpinning the archaeological finds from this site and analysis of lipid components in ceramic vessels, as well as the determination of14C activity of modern aquatic and terrestrial samples, allows us to calculate the local freshwater reservoir effect and14C age offset for charred food crusts from different ceramic vessels more precisely. © 2015 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.


PubMed | University of Palermo, Moscow State University, State Research Institute for Restoration and The State Hermitage Museum
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied spectroscopy | Year: 2016

Analysis of the IR spectra of samples from 230 Russian oil paintings of the 20th century is used to propose a procedure for the threshold estimation of the age of paintings based on measured parameters (intensity ratios of spectral bands). The bands of compounds that are formed upon interaction of pigment (zinc white) with oil are used for dating.


PubMed | Russian Academy of Sciences, University of Aarhus, Estonian Academy of Sciences, Copenhagen University and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2014

The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Malta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers, and the Y chromosome of MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and near the root of most Native American lineages. Similarly, we find autosomal evidence that MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and genetically closely related to modern-day Native Americans, with no close affinity to east Asians. This suggests that populations related to contemporary western Eurasians had a more north-easterly distribution 24,000 years ago than commonly thought. Furthermore, we estimate that 14 to 38% of Native American ancestry may originate through gene flow from this ancient population. This is likely to have occurred after the divergence of Native American ancestors from east Asian ancestors, but before the diversification of Native American populations in the New World. Gene flow from the MA-1 lineage into Native American ancestors could explain why several crania from the First Americans have been reported as bearing morphological characteristics that do not resemble those of east Asians. Sequencing of another south-central Siberian, Afontova Gora-2 dating to approximately 17,000 years ago, revealed similar autosomal genetic signatures as MA-1, suggesting that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans.

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