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Baltimore Highlands, MD, United States

Scrimieri F.,The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Calhoun E.S.,The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Calhoun E.S.,Alma College | Patel K.,The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | And 4 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2011

We found FAM190A transcripts to have internal rearrangements in 40% (19/48) of unselected human cancers. Most of these tumors (84%) had in-frame structures, 94% of which involved deletion of exon 9. The FAM190A gene is located at 4q22.1 in a region of common fragility, FRA4F. Although normally stable in somatic cells, common fragile sites can be hotspots of rearrangement in cancer. The genomic deletion patterns observed at some sites, including FRA4F at 4q22.1, are proposed to be the result of selection for disrupted tumor-suppressor genes. Our evidence, however, indicated additional patterns for FAM190A. We found genomic deletions accounted for some FAM190A in-frame structures, and cases pre-selected for FAM190A genomic deletions had a yet higher prevalence of FAM190A rearrangements. Our evidence of widespread in-frame heterozygous and homozygous rearrangements affecting this gene in tumors of multiple types leads speculation on structural grounds that the mutant forms may retain, provide new, or possibly convey dominant-negative functions. Although a functionally uncharacterized gene, it is evolutionary conserved across vertebrates. In addition to its potential oncogenic role, the in-frame deletions predict the formation of cancer-specific FAM190A peptide sequences (neo-antigens) with potential diagnostic and therapeutic usefulness. © Scrimieri et al.

Norris A.L.,The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center | Kamiyama H.,The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center | Makohon-Moore A.,The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center | Pallavajjala A.,The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center | And 9 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer | Year: 2015

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is driven by the inactivation of the tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), CDKN2A (P16) and SMAD4 (DPC4), commonly by homozygous deletions (HDs). Using a combination of high density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray and whole genome sequencing (WGS), we fine-mapped novel breakpoints surrounding deletions of CDKN2A and SMAD4 and characterized them by their underlying structural variants (SVs). Only one third of CDKN2A and SMAD4 deletions (6 of 18) were simple interstitial deletions, rather, the majority of deletions were caused by complex rearrangements, specifically, a translocation on one side of the TSG in combination with an inversion on the other side. We designate these as "TransFlip" mutations. Characteristics of TransFlip mutations are: (1) a propensity to target the TSGs CDKN2A and SMAD4 (P<0.005), (2) not present in the germline of the examined samples, (3) non-recurrent breakpoints, (4) relatively small (47 bp to 3.4 kb) inversions, (5) inversions can be either telomeric or centromeric to the TSG, and (6) non-reciprocal, and non-recurrent translocations. TransFlip mutations are novel complex genomic rearrangements with unique breakpoint signatures in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesize that they are a common but poorly understood mechanism of TSG inactivation in human cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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