The Small Earth Nepal
The Small Earth Nepal
Shrestha S.,The Interdisciplinary Center |
Aihara Y.,Kobe City College of Nursing |
Bhattarai A.P.,The Small Earth Nepal |
Bista N.,The Small Earth Nepal |
And 5 more authors.
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2017
Information regarding domestic water consumption is vital, as the Kathmandu Valley will soon be implementing the MelamchiWater Supply Project; however, updated information on the current situation after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (GEQ) is still lacking. We investigated the dynamics of domestic water consumption pre- and post-GEQ. The piped water supply was short, and consumption varied widely across the Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) branches and altitude. The reduction in piped, ground, and jar water consumption and the increase in tanker water consumption post-GEQ appeared to be due to the impact of the GEQ. However, the impact did not appear to be prominent on per capita water consumption, although it was reduced from 117 to 99 L post-GEQ. Piped, ground, and tanker water use were associated with an increase and jar water use was associated with a decrease in water consumption. Despite improvements in quantity, inequality in water consumption and inequity in affordability across wealth status was well established. This study suggests to KUKL the areas of priority where improvements to supply are required, and recommends an emphasis on resuming performance. Policy planners should consider the existing inequity in affordability, which is a major issue in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. © 2017 by the authors.
Panthi J.,The Small Earth Nepal |
Li F.,Tongji University |
Wang H.,Tongji University |
Aryal S.,University of Southern Queensland |
And 3 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2017
Both climatic and non-climatic factors affect surface water quality. Similar to its effect across various sectors and areas, climate change has potential to affect surface water quality directly and indirectly. On the one hand, the rise in temperature enhances the microbial activity and decomposition of organic matter in the river system and changes in rainfall alter discharge and water flow in the river ultimately affecting pollution dilution level. On the other hand, the disposal of organic waste and channelizing municipal sewage into the rivers seriously worsen water quality. This study attempts to relate hydro-climatology, water quality, and impact of climatic and non-climatic stresses in affecting river water quality in the upper Bagmati basin in Central Nepal. The results showed that the key water quality indicators such as dissolved oxygen and chemical oxygen demand are getting worse in recent years. No significant relationships were found between the key water quality indicators and changes in key climatic variables. However, the water quality indicators correlated with the increase in urban population and per capita waste production in the city. The findings of this study indicate that dealing with non-climatic stressors such as reducing direct disposal of sewerage and other wastes in the river rather than emphasizing on working with the effects from climate change would largely help to improve water quality in the river flowing from highly populated urban areas. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Dahal P.,The Small Earth Nepal |
Shrestha N.S.,The Small Earth Nepal |
Shrestha N.S.,Kathmandu University |
Shrestha M.L.,The Small Earth Nepal |
And 6 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2016
This paper presents temporal and spatial pattern of drought phenomena in central Nepal using standardized precipitation index (SPI) at multiple time scales. The study is based on 32 years of monthly precipitation data from 40 meteorological stations from 1981 to 2012. Results indicate that, while there is no distinct trend in regional precipitation, interannual variation is large. Trend analysis of drought index shows that most stations are characterized by increases in both severity and frequency of drought and trend is stronger for longer drought time scales. Over the study period, the summer season of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009 and winters 2006, 2008 and 2009 were the worst widespread droughts. These dry periods have a serious impact on agriculture–livestock production of central Nepal. Better understanding of these SPI dynamics could help in understanding the characteristics of droughts and also to develop effective mitigation strategies. © 2015, The Author(s).