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Brodersen J.,University of Aarhus | Brodersen J.,Lund University | Brodersen J.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Malmquist H.J.,Natural History Museum of Kopavogur | And 10 more authors.
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2012

Trophic niche divergence is considered to be a major process by which species coexistence is facilitated. When studying niche segregation in lake ecosystems, we tend to view the niche on a one-dimensional pelagic-littoral axis. In reality, however, the niche use may be more complex and individual fidelity to a niche may be variable both between and within populations. In order to study this complexity, relative simple systems with few species are needed. In this paper, we study how competitor presence affects the resource use of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in 11 species-poor Faroese lakes by comparing relative abundance, stable isotope ratios and diet in multiple habitats. In the presence of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a higher proportion of the trout population was found in the pelagic habitat, and trout in general relied on a more pelagic diet base as compared to trout living in allopatry or in sympatry with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Diet analyses revealed, however, that niche-segregation may be more complex than described on a one-dimensional pelagic-littoral axis. Trout from both littoral and offshore benthic habitats had in the presence of sticklebacks a less benthic diet as compared to trout living in allopatry or in sympatry with charr. Furthermore, we found individual habitat specialization between littoral/benthic and pelagic trout in deep lakes. Hence, our findings indicate that for trout populations interspecific competition can drive shifts in both habitat and niche use, but at the same time they illustrate the complexity of the ecological niche in freshwater ecosystems. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Mulder C.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Bennett E.M.,McGill University | Bohan D.A.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Bonkowski M.,University of Cologne | And 40 more authors.
Advances in Ecological Research | Year: 2015

The study of ecological services (ESs) is fast becoming a cornerstone of mainstream ecology, largely because they provide a useful means of linking functioning to societal benefits in complex systems by connecting different organizational levels. In order to identify the main challenges facing current and future ES research, we analyzed the effects of the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) on different disciplines. Within a set of topics framed around concepts embedded within the MEA, each co-author identified five key research challenges and, where feasible, suggested possible solutions. Concepts included those related to specific service types (i.e. provisioning, supporting, regulating, cultural, aesthetic services) as well as more synthetic issues spanning the natural and social sciences, which often linked a wide range of disciplines, as was the case for the application of network theory. By merging similar responses, and removing some of the narrower suggestions from our sample pool, we distilled the key challenges into a smaller subset. We review some of the historical context to the MEA and identify some of the broader scientific and philosophical issues that still permeate discourse in this field. Finally, we consider where the greatest advances are most likely to be made in the next decade and beyond. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Source


Mulder C.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Bennett E.M.,McGill University | Bohan D.A.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Bonkowski M.,University of Cologne | And 39 more authors.
Advances in Ecological Research | Year: 2015

The study of ecological services (ESs) is fast becoming a cornerstone of mainstream ecology, largely because they provide a useful means of linking functioning to societal benefits in complex systems by connecting different organizational levels. In order to identify the main challenges facing current and future ES research, we analyzed the effects of the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) on different disciplines. Within a set of topics framed around concepts embedded within the MEA, each co-author identified five key research challenges and, where feasible, suggested possible solutions. Concepts included those related to specific service types (i.e. provisioning, supporting, regulating, cultural, aesthetic services) as well as more synthetic issues spanning the natural and social sciences, which often linked a wide range of disciplines, as was the case for the application of network theory. By merging similar responses, and removing some of the narrower suggestions from our sample pool, we distilled the key challenges into a smaller subset. We review some of the historical context to the MEA and identify some of the broader scientific and philosophical issues that still permeate discourse in this field. Finally, we consider where the greatest advances are most likely to be made in the next decade and beyond. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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