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Zirkle G.,Ohio State University | Lal R.,Ohio State University | Augustin B.,The Scotts Miracle Gro Company
HortScience | Year: 2011

Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and the impact of carbon (C) cycling in urban soils are themes of increasing interest. A model was developed to investigate the potential of C sequestration in home lawns. The model contrasted gross C sequestered versus the hidden C costs (HCC) associated with typical lawn maintenance practices. The potential of SOC sequestration for U.S. home lawns was determined from SOC sequestration rates of turfgrass and grasslands. Net SOC sequestration in lawn soils was estimated using a simple mass balance model derived from typical homeowner lawn maintenance practices. The average SOC sequestration rate for U.S. lawns was 46.0 to 127.1 g C/m2/year. Additional C sequestration can result from biomass gains attributable to fertilizer and irrigation management. Hidden C costs are the amount of energy expended by typical lawn management practices in grams of carbon equivalents (CE)/m2/ year and include practices including mowing, irrigating, fertilizing, and using pesticides. The net SOC sequestration rate was assessed by subtracting the HCC from gross SOC sequestration rate. Lawn maintenance practices ranged from low to high management. Low management with minimal input (MI) included mowing only, a net SOC sequestration rate of 25.4 to 114.2 g C/m2/year. The rate of SOC sequestration for doit- yourself (DIY) management by homeowners was 80.6 to 183.0 g C/m2/year. High management, based on university and industry-standard best management recommendation practices (BMPs), had a net SOC sequestration rate of 51.7 to 204.3 g C/m2/year. Lawns can be a net sink for atmospheric CO2 under all three evaluated levels of management practices with a national technical potential ranging from 25.4 to 204.3 g C/m2/year.

Smith J.,The Scotts Miracle Gro Company | Wherley B.,Texas A&M University | Reynolds C.,Texas A&M University | White R.,Texas A&M University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2015

Phoma macrostoma is a bioherbicide being developed for selective weed control in turfgrass. The previous research with this product is limited to cool-season turfgrass systems with little information available on appropriate application rates or weed control spectrum for weeds common to warm-season turf. Studies were conducted to evaluate application rates and weed control spectrum of P. macrostoma on common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wigg.), slender aster (Aster subulatus var. ligulatus Shinners), common mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.), common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), California burclover (Medicago polymorpha L.), and annual sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). Although most weeds exhibited susceptibility to P. macrostoma, control differed by weed species and study. P. macrostoma had the greatest efficacy on dandelion, but provided little efficacy on common purslane and common mallow. Warm-season turfgrass tolerance was also evaluated across five commonly used warm-season turfgrass species. No turfgrass injury was observed at any rate on any species; however, weed control data suggest that P. macrostoma may not offer effective broad-spectrum weed control similar to common synthetic herbicides, when applied at the rates used in this study. © 2015, Taylor & Francis.

Rawlins B.G.,British Geological Survey | Harris J.,Cranfield University | Price S.,British Geological Survey | Bartlett M.,Cranfield University | Bartlett M.,The Scotts Miracle Gro Company
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2015

As of 2010, more than half of the global population resides in urban areas and relies to some extent on the functions, services and natural capital provided by urban soils. Greater extremes in climate predicted for the coming decades will impact on these urban soil functions to varying degrees. We provide an inventory of urban soil functions based on an extension to the typology of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (i.e. we added a 'carrying function' to those of supporting, regulating, provisioning and cultural functions) and review the climate drivers that are likely to have the most significant impacts upon them, using urban soils of England as an exemplar. We identify knowledge gaps, as in areas such as carbon cycling and storage, disease regulation and cultural services. We assess adaptation measures, which may ameliorate these potential, climate-change-related impacts including changes in construction practices, developments in green architecture and development proposals under the planning regime. We discuss the lack of policies relating to urban soils and the problem associated with monitoring their functions, as is often the case, when large quantities of soil are removed and replaced, leading to major transformation of soil properties, which may be unrelated to pedogenic processes. © 2015 British Society of Soil Science.

Lasrado J.A.,Kemin Foods | Trinker D.,Kemin Foods | Ceddia M.A.,The Scotts Miracle Gro Company | Herrlinger K.A.,Kemin Foods
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

A proprietary dry spearmint extract containing 15.4% rosmarinic acid was assessed in a 90-day study with Sprague-Dawley rats that were gavaged at 0, 422 (low), 844 (mid), or 1948 (high) mg dry spearmint extract/kg bw/day, (equivalent to 0, 65, 130, or 300. mg rosmarinic acid/kg bw/day, respectively). No treatment-related clinical signs or adverse effects were observed in body weight, feed consumption, neurological parameters, hematology, clinical chemistry, gross pathology, and histopathology. However, there were statistically significant increases in the absolute and relative weight of the pituitary gland in mid- and high-dose males, absolute and relative weight of the thyroid gland in the high-dose groups of both sexes and in mid-dose males, and absolute and relative weight of the salivary glands in high-dose females compared to vehicle control group. These changes were considered non-adverse since no corresponding microscopic changes were seen. Based on these findings, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the dry spearmint extract was 1948. mg extract/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested, in Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, the extract showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, and TA1537) and did not induce chromosomal aberrations when tested with human peripheral blood lymphocytes. © 2015.

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