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Marysville, OH, United States

Steele M.A.,Wilkes University | Rompre G.,Wilkes University | Rompre G.,The Scotts Company | Stratford J.A.,Wilkes University | And 4 more authors.
Integrative Zoology | Year: 2015

Scatterhoarding rodents often place caches in the open where pilferage rates are reduced, suggesting that they tradeoff higher risks of predation for more secure cache sites. We tested this hypothesis in two study systems by measuring predation risks inferred from measures of giving-up densities (GUDs) at known cache sites and other sites for comparison. Rodent GUDs were measured with small trays containing 3 L of fine sand mixed with sunflower seeds. In the first experiment, we relied on a 2-year seed dispersal study in a natural forest to identify caches of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and then measured GUDs at: (i) these caches; (ii) comparable points along logs and rocks where rodent activity was assumed highest; and (iii) a set of random points. We found that GUDs and, presumably, predation risks, were higher at both cache and random points than those with cover. At the second site, we measured GUDs of eastern gray squirrels in an open park system and found that GUDs were consistently lowest at the base of the tree compared to more open sites, where previous studies show caching by squirrels to be highest and pilferage rates by naïve competitors to be lowest. These results confirm that predation risks can influence scatterhoarding decisions but that they are also highly context dependent, and that the landscape of fear, now so well documented in the literature, could potentially shape the temporal and spatial patterns of seedling establishment and forest regeneration in systems where scatterhoarding is common. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Bailey K.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Pitt W.M.,Charles Sturt University | Falk S.,The Scotts Company | Derby J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Biological Control | Year: 2011

Phoma macrostoma 94-44B was evaluated against 94 plant species in 34 botanical families, of economically important agricultural, horticultural and ornamental species, as well as target and nontarget weeds. Fifty-seven species from 28 families were found to be resistant to P. macrostoma, while 38 species from 12 families, six of which also contained resistant species, were found to be susceptible. Those families comprising both susceptible and resistant species included the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae with the foremost three containing the largest numbers of susceptible species. P. macrostoma was pathogenic to many dicotyledonous plant species, but nonpathogenic to monocots. Commercial applications for weed management in turfgrass, agriculture, horticulture and forestry seem probable, while domestically management of weeds in lawns, transplanted ornamental and annual flowering species may provide alternative markets. © 2011.

Studzinska A.K.,Ohio State University | Gardner D.S.,Ohio State University | Metzger J.D.,Ohio State University | Shetlar D.,501 Carmack Road | And 2 more authors.
HortScience | Year: 2012

Turf grown in shade exhibits increased stem elongation. Dwarfismcould improve turfgrass quality by reducing elongation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) over expression on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) performance under restricted light conditions and low mowing heights. Greenhouse studies were conducted at The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, from 1 Sept. to 31 Oct. in both 2008 and 2009. Two experimental lines,Ax6548 and Ax6549, transformed with CP4 EPSPS and PcGA2ox gene; and a nontransformed control (NTC) was subjected to four light environments: full sun, reduced red to far red light ratio (R:FR), neutral shade [reduced photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)], and canopy shade (reduced PPF and R:FR). Turf was evaluated every 10 days for color and percent coverage. GA2ox over expression resulted in darker green color in both transgenic lines under all light treatments as compared with NTC plants. No differences in overall turfgrass coverage were noted in full sun conditions among the lines. A significant decrease in turf coverage occurred for all shade treatments regardless of line. However, Ax6549 decreased the least. Overall data indicated that GA2ox over expression can improve quality of turfgrass under reduced light conditions.

Insecticidal compositions suitable for use in preparation of insecticidal granular fertilizer and insecticidal formulations comprising a pyrethroid and a glycol present in a concentration of from 40.0% by weight to 99.0% by weight based upon the total weight of all components in the composition is disclosed.

Bailey K.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Falk S.,The Scotts Company | Derby J.-A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Melzer M.,University of Guelph | Boland G.J.,University of Guelph
Biological Control | Year: 2013

Phoma macrostoma is registered as a bioherbicide in North America to control broadleaved weeds species in turfgrass. A study was conducted to examine the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, lime, and commercial fertilizers with or without applications of the bioherbicide on the reduction of dandelion under greenhouse and field conditions. The bioherbicide provided 70-100% reduction of dandelion. The addition of nitrogen with the bioherbicide, in the form of urea (45-0-0), Scotts Turf Builder Pro (32-0-4 plus 2% Fe), and Scotts Lawn Pro (26-0-3, with no iron), significantly reduced dandelion more than in soil that was not amended with fertilizers in the greenhouse and field locations. Bioherbicide efficacy on dandelion was 10-20% better with these fertilizer treatments. Phosphate (0-46-0), potassium sulfate (0-0-42), and lime had either no effect or did not reduce dandelions under greenhouse conditions. This study showed that P. macrostoma retained bioherbicide efficacy on dandelion in conjunction with typical fertility practices and the combination of the bioherbicide with nitrogen fertilizers improved bioherbicide efficacy, especially in low nitrogen soils. © 2013.

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