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Haymarket, Australia

With our rapidly ageing population there is an urgent imperative to minimise the rate of falls and associated injuries. A key challenge to public health is to better conceptualise and contextualise falls prevention evidence for more effective policy making and practice. This paper describes how NSW Health adopted the Nutbeam and Bauman Stages of Research and Evaluation Model in the strategic development of the NSW Health Plan for Prevention of Falls and Harm from Falls Among Older People: 2011-2015. Research evidence has been comprehensively applied to every stage of the development of the Plan and research and evaluation is a key action area within the new Plan. The Stages of Research and Evaluation Model provides a useful overarching framework for policy makers to contextualise and more effectively apply research evidence throughout the policy making process from problem definition to program monitoring. Source

Muthayya S.,The Sax Institute | Sugimoto J.D.,University of Florida | Sugimoto J.D.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Montgomery S.,Emory University | Maberly G.F.,The Innovation and Redesign Unit
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

Banks E.,Australian National University | Banks E.,The Sax Institute | Joshy G.,Australian National University | Abhayaratna W.P.,Australian National University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Medicine

Background: Erectile dysfunction is an emerging risk marker for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events; however, evidence on dose response and specific CVD outcomes is limited. This study investigates the relationship between severity of erectile dysfunction and specific CVD outcomes. Methods and Findings: We conducted a prospective population-based Australian study (the 45 and Up Study) linking questionnaire data from 2006-2009 with hospitalisation and death data to 30 June and 31 Dec 2010 respectively for 95,038 men aged ≥45 y. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship of reported severity of erectile dysfunction to all-cause mortality and first CVD-related hospitalisation since baseline in men with and without previous CVD, adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, marital status, income, education, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia treatment. There were 7,855 incident admissions for CVD and 2,304 deaths during follow-up (mean time from recruitment, 2.2 y for CVD admission and 2.8 y for mortality). Risks of CVD and death increased steadily with severity of erectile dysfunction. Among men without previous CVD, those with severe versus no erectile dysfunction had significantly increased risks of ischaemic heart disease (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.60, 95% CI 1.31-1.95), heart failure (8.00, 2.64-24.2), peripheral vascular disease (1.92, 1.12-3.29), "other" CVD (1.26, 1.05-1.51), all CVD combined (1.35, 1.19-1.53), and all-cause mortality (1.93, 1.52-2.44). For men with previous CVD, corresponding RRs (95% CI) were 1.70 (1.46-1.98), 4.40 (2.64-7.33), 2.46 (1.63-3.70), 1.40 (1.21-1.63), 1.64 (1.48-1.81), and 2.37 (1.87-3.01), respectively. Among men without previous CVD, RRs of more specific CVDs increased significantly with severe versus no erectile dysfunction, including acute myocardial infarction (1.66, 1.22-2.26), atrioventricular and left bundle branch block (6.62, 1.86-23.56), and (peripheral) atherosclerosis (2.47, 1.18-5.15), with no significant difference in risk for conditions such as primary hypertension (0.61, 0.16-2.35) and intracerebral haemorrhage (0.78, 0.20-2.97). Conclusions: These findings give support for CVD risk assessment in men with erectile dysfunction who have not already undergone assessment. The utility of erectile dysfunction as a clinical risk prediction tool requires specific testing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. © 2013 Banks et al. Source

To describe the prevalence, circumstances and consequences of falls among community-dwelling older people in NSW using data from the 2009 NSW Falls Prevention Baseline Survey. Telephone interviews with a random sample of 5681 NSW residents aged 65 years and over were conducted in 2009. Of those surveyed, 25.6% reported falling in the last year. Of those who fell, 61.2% fell once, 21.4% fell twice, 7.8% fell three times, and 9.5% fell four or more times in the last year. Sixty-six percent of those who fell in the last year were injured and 20.0% visited a hospital as a result of a fall. The most common injuries were cuts, grazes or bruises (71.0%) and sprains or strains (9.9%). The findings of this survey are consistent with previous findings in the published fall injury prevention literature. The results from the survey will assist in the design of community oriented fall injury prevention strategies and will form the baseline measure for the evaluation of the impact of these strategies in NSW. Source

Magee C.A.,University of Wollongong | Holliday E.G.,Hunter Medical Research Institute | Attia J.,Hunter Medical Research Institute | Kritharides L.,University of Sydney | And 2 more authors.
Sleep Medicine

Objective: To examine the relationship between sleep duration and mortality and to quantify the likely impact of residual confounding due to poor health status on any observed association. Methods: The sample included 227,815 Australian adults aged 45. years and older recruited from 2006-2009 (the 45 and Up Study). Sleep duration and relevant covariates (e.g., health status, demographic factors) were assessed through a self-report questionnaire. These data were linked with mortality data from the New South Wales Registry of Births, Deaths, and Marriages up to December 2010 (mean follow-up period, 2.8. y). Cox proportional hazards models examined the relationship between sleep duration and all-cause mortality adjusting for relevant sociodemographic covariates (e.g., age, gender, marital status), with further stratification by baseline health status based on physical functioning and preexisting disease. Results: The adjusted mortality risk was significantly higher in individuals reporting <6. hours of sleep (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13[1.01-1.25]) and ≥10. hours of sleep (HR, 1.26[1.16-1.36]), compared to those reporting 7. hours of sleep per night. These associations differed by baseline health status (p[interaction]. = 0.026) such that there was no significant relationship of sleep duration to mortality in those with good health at baseline. Conclusion: Following careful prospective controlling for baseline health, mortality risk does not significantly vary according to sleep duration. Previous findings suggesting a relationship between sleep duration and mortality could be affected by residual confounding by poor preexisting health, as reflected by a combination of preexisting illnesses and functional limitations. © 2013. Source

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