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The Salvation Army is a Christian denominational church and an international charitable organization structured in a quasi-military fashion. The organization reports a worldwide membership of over 1.5 million, consisting of soldiers, officers and adherents known as Salvationists. Its founders Catherine and William Booth sought to bring salvation to the poor, destitute and hungry by meeting both their "physical and spiritual needs". It is present in 126 countries, running charity shops, operating shelters for the homeless, and providing disaster relief and humanitarian aid to developing countries.The theology of the Salvation Army is mainstream Methodist although it is distinctive in government and practice. The Army's doctrine follows mainstream Christian beliefs, and its articles of faith emphasize God's "saving purposes". Its objects are "the advancement of the Christian religion… of education, the relief of poverty, and other charitable objects beneficial to society or the community of mankind as a whole."The Army was founded in 1865 in London by one-time Methodist minister William Booth. Originally known as the East London Christian Mission, in 1878 Booth reorganized the mission, becoming its first General and introducing the military structure which has been retained to the present day. The current world leader of The Salvation Army is General André Cox, who was elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army on 3 August 2013. Wikipedia.


Bocskei E.M.,The Salvation Army | Ostry A.S.,University of Victoria
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: Few authors have investigated the institutional character of charitable food programs and their capacity to address food security in Canada. Methods:We surveyed food programmanagers at charitable agencies in Greater Victoria, British Columbia.We discuss the structure of the "system" of charitable food provision, the value of sourced food, types of services provided, clients' demographic profile, and the estimated healthfulness ofmeals served.We also describe the proportion ofmajor food types purchased and donated to agencies. Results: Thirty-six agencies served approximately 20,000meals a week to about 17,000 people. Food valued at $3.2million was purchased or donated; approximately 50%was donated,mainly by corporations. The largest value of food purchased and donated was frommeat and alternatives (40.9%) and nonperishable food items (16%). Dairy productsmade up the smallest share of donated foods. Conclusions: Charitable food programs in Victoria depend on food donations. The proportion of dairy products and produce is low, which raises questions about the healthfulness of foods currently fed to homeless and poor people in the city. Source


Christiansen B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Reeder K.,The Salvation Army | Baker T.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Fiore M.C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs | Year: 2012

Objective: People who live in poverty have a high preva- lence of smoking, are less likely to engage in evidence-based treatment, and find it harder to quit. Their beliefs about smoking and quitting can serve as barriers to quitting. Little is known about the smoking and quit- ting beliefs of the very poor (about U.S. $15,000 or less annual family income) because they tend not to be included in research. This study sought to assess beliefs about smoking and quitting by the very poor in relation to past quitting behavior and intention to quit in the future. Method: A survey was administered in person to residents in randomly selected addresses in two very impoverished Milwaukee, WI, ZIP codes during the day to ensure the inclusion of the very poor. Results: Six hundred fifty-four people completed the survey, a response rate of 78.3%. Sixty-eight percent reported annual household incomes of less than $15,000 compared with 30.8% in the community as a whole and 13.0% of households nationally. Self-reported smoking prevalence was 42.1%. Specific beliefs about smoking and quitting were related to past quit attempts and intentions to quit in the future. Both race and income predicted beliefs and quitting-related variables independently and jointly. Conclusions: Continued tobacco-control progress requires addressing specific populations with known high tobacco use. One of these popula- tions is those with low income. Efforts to engage them in treatment will have to address specific beliefs about smoking and quitting. Source


Christiansen B.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Reeder K.M.,The Salvation Army | Terbeek E.G.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Fiore M.C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Baker T.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2015

Introduction: Individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES), smoke at very high rates but make fewer and less successful quit attempts than do other smokers. Low-SES smokers have specific beliefs about smoking and quitting that may serve as barriers to making quit attempts. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of a brief intervention addressing these beliefs on making calls to a telephone quit line. Methods: Of 522 smokers entering the study at 5 Wisconsin Salvation Army (SA) sites, 102 expressed motivation to quit and served as a comparison group. The remaining 420 smokers were not motivated to quit and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: an intervention group who received brief counseling focused on cessation goals and beliefs, an attention-control group, and a low contact control group. The primary outcome was the rate at which smokers made a call to the Wisconsin tobacco quit line (WTQL) during their SA visit. Secondary outcome measures included motivational variables, stage of change, changes in beliefs about smoking and quitting, and self-reported abstinence. Results: Unmotivated participants in the intervention condition called the WTQL at a significantly higher rate (12.2%) than did those in the 2 control conditions (2.2% and 1.4%) (p <.01) and approached the rate of calling by participants who were initially motivated to quit (15.7%). Intervention condition participants also showed improved motivation to quit and stage of change. Conclusions: A brief, targeted motivational intervention focusing on cessation goals and beliefs increased the initiation of an evidence-based tobacco cessation treatment by low-SES smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. Source


Iris M.,Leonard Schanfield Research Institute | Conrad K.J.,Chestnut Health Systems | Conrad K.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Ridings J.,The Salvation Army
Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to improve measurement of elder self-neglect by testing the psychometric properties of the Elder Self-Neglect Assessment (ESNA). Social workers, case managers, and adult protective services providers from 13 Illinois agencies completed a 77-item assessment for 215 clients suffering from self neglect. Analyses used Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches to test for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation, resulting in a 62-item assessment. The ESNA met Rasch fit criteria with good internal consistency, item reliability, and construct validity. A 25-item short form also met Rasch criteria. A hierarchy of items associated with severity of abuse was produced by frequency of occurrence. ESNA indicators of self-neglect align into two broad categories: behavioral characteristics and environmental factors, which must be accounted for in a comprehensive evaluation. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Roy Sarkar K.,The Salvation Army
Information Security Technical Report | Year: 2010

The UK government took a bruising in the headlines (Sep 2008) after a Home Office contractor lost a USB stick containing unencrypted data on all 84,000 prisoners in England and Wales. As a result, the Home Office terminated the £1.5 million contract with the management consultancy firm. The world woke up to the largest attempted bank fraud ever when the UK's National Hi-Tech Crime Unit foiled the world's largest potential bank robbery in March 2005. With the help of the security supervisor, thieves masquerading as cleaning staff installed hardware keystroke loggers on computers within the London branch of a Japanese bank, to steal £220m. It is indeed sobering to imagine that any organisation could fall victim to such events and the damage an insider can do. The consulting firm lost the contract worth £1.5 million due to a small mistake by an employee. The London branch of the Japanese Bank would have lost £220 million had not the crime been foiled. Insider threat is a reality. Insiders commit fraud or steal sensitive information when motivated by money or revenge. Well-meaning employees can compromise the security of an organisation with their overzealousness in getting their job done. Every organisation has a varied mix of employees, consultants, management, partners and complex infrastructure and that makes handling insider threats a daunting challenge. With insider attacks, organisations face potential damage through loss of revenue, loss of reputation, loss of intellectual property or even loss of human life. The insider threat problem is more elusive and perplexing than any other threat. Assessing the insider threat is the first step to determine the likelihood of any insider attack. Technical solutions do not suffice since insider threats are fundamentally a people issue. Therefore, a three-pronged approach - technological, behavioural and organisational assessment is essential in facilitating the prediction of insider threats and pre-empt any insider attack thus improving the organization's security, survivability, and resiliency in light of insider threats. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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