The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK

The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK

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Woolfenden H.C.,John Innes Center | Bourdais G.,The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK | Kopischke M.,The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK | Miedes E.,Technical University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2017

Guard cells dynamically adjust their shape in order to regulate photosynthetic gas exchange, respiration rates and defend against pathogen entry. Cell shape changes are determined by the interplay of cell wall material properties and turgor pressure. To investigate this relationship between turgor pressure, cell wall properties and cell shape, we focused on kidney-shaped stomata and developed a biomechanical model of a guard cell pair. Treating the cell wall as a composite of the pectin-rich cell wall matrix embedded with cellulose microfibrils, we show that strong, circumferentially oriented fibres are critical for opening. We find that the opening dynamics are dictated by the mechanical stress response of the cell wall matrix, and as the turgor rises, the pectinaceous matrix stiffens. We validate these predictions with stomatal opening experiments in selected Arabidopsis cell wall mutants. Thus, using a computational framework that combines a 3D biomechanical model with parameter optimization, we demonstrate how to exploit subtle shape changes to infer cell wall material properties. Our findings reveal that proper stomatal dynamics are built on two key properties of the cell wall, namely anisotropy in the form of hoop reinforcement and strain stiffening. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Society for Experimental Biology.

Derevnina L.,The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK | Dagdas Y.F.,The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK | De la Concepcion J.C.,The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK | Bialas A.,The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK | And 10 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2016

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. References Summary: Elicitins are structurally conserved extracellular proteins in Phytophthora and Pythium oomycete pathogen species. They were first described in the late 1980s as abundant proteins in Phytophthora culture filtrates that have the capacity to elicit hypersensitive (HR) cell death and disease resistance in tobacco. Later, they became well-established as having features of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and to elicit defences in a variety of plant species. Research on elicitins culminated in the recent cloning of the elicitin response (ELR) cell surface receptor-like protein, from the wild potato Solanum microdontum, which mediates response to a broad range of elicitins. In this review, we provide an overview on elicitins and the plant responses they elicit. We summarize the state of the art by describing what we consider to be the nine most important features of elicitin biology. © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

Pfeilmeier S.,John Innes Center | Saur I.M.-L.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Rathjen J.P.,Australian National University | Zipfel C.,The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK | Malone J.G.,John Innes Center
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

The plant innate immune system employs plasma membrane-localized receptors that specifically perceive pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs). This induces a defence response called pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) to fend off pathogen attack. Commensal bacteria are also exposed to potential immune recognition and must employ strategies to evade and/or suppress PTI to successfully colonize the plant. During plant infection, the flagellum has an ambiguous role, acting as both a virulence factor and also as a potent immunogen as a result of the recognition of its main building block, flagellin, by the plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2). Therefore, strict control of flagella synthesis is especially important for plant-associated bacteria. Here, we show that cyclic-di-GMP [bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate], a central regulator of bacterial lifestyle, is involved in the evasion of PTI. Elevated cyclic-di-GMP levels in the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000, the opportunist P.aeruginosaPAO1 and the commensal P.protegensPf-5 inhibit flagellin synthesis and help the bacteria to evade FLS2-mediated signalling in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite this, high cellular cyclic-di-GMP concentrations were shown to drastically reduce the virulence of PtoDC3000 during plant infection. We propose that this is a result of reduced flagellar motility and/or additional pleiotropic effects of cyclic-di-GMP signalling on bacterial behaviour. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

Walter S.,University of Aarhus | Ali S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Kemen E.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Nazari K.,Icarda Regional Cereal Rust Research Center Aegean Agricultural Research Institute Pk 9 Menemen Izmir Turkey | And 9 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2016

Investigating the origin and dispersal pathways is instrumental to mitigate threats and economic and environmental consequences of invasive crop pathogens. In the case of Puccinia striiformis causing yellow rust on wheat, a number of economically important invasions have been reported, e.g., the spreading of two aggressive and high temperature adapted strains to three continents since 2000. The combination of sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers, which were developed from two specific AFLP fragments, differentiated the two invasive strains, PstS1 and PstS2 from all other P. striiformis strains investigated at a worldwide level. The application of the SCAR markers on 566 isolates showed that PstS1 was present in East Africa in the early 1980s and then detected in the Americas in 2000 and in Australia in 2002. PstS2 which evolved from PstS1 became widespread in the Middle East and Central Asia. In 2000, PstS2 was detected in Europe, where it never became prevalent. Additional SSR genotyping and virulence phenotyping revealed 10 and six variants, respectively, within PstS1 and PstS2, demonstrating the evolutionary potential of the pathogen. Overall, the results suggested East Africa as the most plausible origin of the two invasive strains. The SCAR markers developed in the present study provide a rapid, inexpensive, and efficient tool to track the distribution of P. striiformis invasive strains, PstS1 and PstS2. © 2016 Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Postma J.,The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK | Liebrand T.W.H.,Wageningen University | Bi G.,Wageningen University | Evrard A.,The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7UH UK | And 5 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2016

The first layer of plant immunity is activated by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and proteins (RLPs) that detect infectious pathogens. Constitutive interaction with the SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1 (SOBIR1) RLK contributes to RLP stability and kinase activity. As RLK activation requires transphosphorylation with a second associated RLK, it remains elusive how RLPs initiate downstream signaling. We employed live-cell imaging, gene silencing and coimmunoprecipitation to investigate the requirement of associated kinases for functioning and ligand-induced subcellular trafficking of Cf RLPs that mediate immunity of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum. Our research shows that after elicitation with matching effector ligands Avr4 and Avr9, BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1/SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE 3 (BAK1/SERK3) associates with Cf-4 and Cf-9. BAK1/SERK3 is required for the effector-triggered hypersensitive response and resistance of tomato against C. fulvum. Furthermore, Cf-4 interacts with SOBIR1 at the plasma membrane and is recruited to late endosomes upon Avr4 trigger, also depending on BAK1/SERK3. These observations indicate that RLP-mediated resistance and endocytosis require ligand-induced recruitment of BAK1/SERK3, reminiscent of BAK1/SERK3 interaction and subcellular fate of the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) RLK. This reveals that diverse classes of cell surface immune receptors share common requirements for initiation of resistance and endocytosis. © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

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