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Morgan G.,The Royal Marsden Hospital
Seminars in oncology | Year: 2010

Bisphosphonates are firmly entrenched in the treatment of metastatic bone disease secondary to several tumor types, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and myeloma. More recently, an emerging body of preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that bisphosphonates might also exhibit antitumor activity. This expanded role for bisphosphonates in the adjuvant setting might have profound clinical implications in many cancer types, particularly in the context of prevention of bone metastasis. Increased understanding of the mechanistic basis of the antitumor effects indicates that these might occur via direct mechanisms such as induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor cell adhesion and invasion, as well as indirect mechanisms such as inhibition of angiogenesis. There is also considerable evidence to suggest that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates might exert additive or synergistic interactions with standard cytotoxic agents. However, mature clinical data with bisphosphonates are limited and, thus far, provide conflicting evidence regarding the antitumor role of bisphosphonates, but have mostly been conducted with first-generation bisphosphonates such as clodronate that are not as effective as next-generation bisphosphonates. Several large randomized clinical trials are ongoing with the next-generation bisphosphonate zoledronic acid to prospectively confirm an antitumor role for bisphosphonates in various tumor types. This review assesses the current body of preclinical and clinical evidence in favor of an antitumor effect of bisphosphonates in different cancer types. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. Source


Dillon M.T.,The Institute of Cancer Research | Good J.S.,The Royal Marsden Hospital | Harrington K.J.,The Institute of Cancer Research
Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Despite tremendous advances in radiotherapy techniques, allowing dose escalation to tumour tissues and sparing of organs at risk, cure rates from radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy remain suboptimal for most cancers. In tandem with our growing understanding of tumour biology, we are beginning to appreciate that targeting the molecular response to radiation-induced DNA damage holds great promise for selective tumour radiosensitisation. In particular, approaches that inhibit cell cycle checkpoint controls offer a means of exploiting molecular differences between tumour and normal cells, thereby inducing so-called cancer-specific synthetic lethality. In this overview, we discuss cellular responses to radiation-induced damage and discuss the potential of using G2/M cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors as a means of enhancing tumour control rates. © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Source


Kelleher F.C.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Kelleher F.C.,IE University | O'Sullivan H.,IE University | Smyth E.,The Royal Marsden Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2013

Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are a family of ligands that bind to four different types of cell surface receptor entitled, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. These receptors differ in their ligand binding affinity and tissue distribution. The prototypical receptor structure is that of an extracellular region comprising three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, a hydrophobic transmembrane segment and a split intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Alternative gene splicing affecting the extracellular third Ig loop also creates different receptor isoforms entitled FGFRIIIb and FGFRIIIc. Somatic fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) mutations are implicated in different types of cancer and germline FGFR mutations occur in developmental syndromes particularly those in which craniosynostosis is a feature. The mutations found in both conditions are often identical. Many somatic FGFR mutations in cancer are gain-of-function mutations of established preclinical oncogenic potential. Gene amplification can also occur with 19-22% of squamous cell lung cancers for example having amplification of FGFR1. Ontologic comparators can be informative such as aberrant spermatogenesis being implicated in both spermatocytic seminomas and Apert syndrome. The former arises from somatic FGFR3 mutations and Apert syndrome arises from germline FGFR2 mutations. Finally, therapeutics directed at inhibiting the FGF/FGFR interaction are a promising subject for clinical trials. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. Source


Fisher C.,The Royal Marsden Hospital
Surgical Pathology Clinics | Year: 2011

Information is presented on the pathology of spindle cell sarcomas. Synovial sarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, fibrosarcoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, low-grade myofibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma, and endothelial neoplasms are discussed in terms of an overview of the tumor, microscopic and gross features, diagnostic techniques, genetic markers, differential diagnosis, clinical details, and prognosis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Fragkandrea I.,The Royal Marsden Hospital | Nixon J.A.,University of London | Panagopoulou P.,Panagiotis and Aglaia Kyriakou Childrens Hospital
American Family Physician | Year: 2013

Although cancer in children is rare, it is the second most common cause of childhood mortality in developed countries. It often presents with nonspecific symptoms similar to those of benign conditions, leading to delays in the diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Primary care physicians should have a raised index of suspicion and explore the possibility of cancer in children who have worrisome or persisting signs and symptoms. Red flag signs for leukemia or lymphoma include unexplained and protracted pallor, malaise, fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, hemorrhagic diathesis, and hepatosplenomegaly. New onset or persistent morning headaches associated with vomiting, neurologic symptoms, or back pain should raise concern for tumors of the central nervous system. Palpable masses in the abdomen or soft tissues, and persistent bone pain that awakens the child are red flags for abdominal, soft tissue, and bone tumors. Leukokoria is a red flag for retinoblastoma. Endocrine symptoms such as growth arrest, diabetes insipidus, and precocious or delayed puberty may be signs of endocranial or germ cell tumors. Paraneoplastic manifestations such as opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, rheumatic symptoms, or hypertension are rare and may be related to neuroblastoma, leukemia, or Wilms tumor, respectively. Increased suspicion is also warranted for conditions associated with a higher risk of childhood cancer, including immunodeficiency syndromes and previous malignancies, as well as with certain genetic conditions and familial cancer syndromes such as Down syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, hemihypertrophy, neurofibromatosis, and retinoblastoma. © 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians. Source

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