The Royal Library

Copenhagen, Denmark

The Royal Library

Copenhagen, Denmark
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Svenningsen S.R.,The Royal Library | Svenningsen S.R.,Roskilde University | Levin G.,University of Aarhus | Jepsen M.R.,Copenhagen University
Geografisk Tidsskrift - Danish Journal of Geography | Year: 2015

During the past century, the western hemisphere has seen a general trend of agricultural expansion on the behalf of semi-natural habitat types, such as heathlands and meadows. This has been documented in numerous studies of land use change. This trend is reflected in today’s European rural landscapes, which are dominated by intensive agriculture. However, many of these studies are based on cartographical sources, such as topographical and thematic maps, and thus prone to uncertainties regarding classification systems over time, variations in definitions of land use categories and lacking documentations of land use definitions. For this study, we conducted two change detection studies, covering the same four study areas in Denmark. The first study was based on topographic maps, and indicates a strong decline in the amount of semi-natural grassland (SNG). This was contrasted by the second study, which was based on an interpretation of aerial photos, and which indicated a much less pronounced reduction of SNGs. Year to year comparisons of these two analyses also revealed large discrepancies in the coverage of SNGs. Our results indicate that change detection studies must account for uncertainties in classifications and results should be interpreted with caution. © 2015 The Royal Danish Geographical Society

PubMed | Collection Care, University of Pennsylvania, Ohio State University, University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne and 11 more.
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Tissue-thin parchment made it possible to produce the first pocket Bibles: Thousands were made in the 13th century. The source of this parchment, often called uterine vellum, has been a long-standing controversy in codicology. Use of the Latin term abortivum in many sources has led some scholars to suggest that the skin of fetal calves or sheep was used. Others have argued that it would not be possible to sustain herds if so many pocket Bibles were produced from fetal skins, arguing instead for unexpected alternatives, such as rabbit. Here, we report a simple and objective technique using standard conservation treatments to identify the animal origin of parchment. The noninvasive method is a variant on zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) peptide mass fingerprinting but extracts protein from the parchment surface by using an electrostatic charge generated by gentle rubbing of a PVC eraser on the membrane surface. Using this method, we analyzed 72 pocket Bibles originating in France, England, and Italy and 293 additional parchment samples that bracket this period. We found no evidence for the use of unexpected animals; however, we did identify the use of more than one mammal species in a single manuscript, consistent with the local availability of hides. These results suggest that ultrafine vellum does not necessarily derive from the use of abortive or newborn animals with ultrathin hides, but could equally well reflect a production process that allowed the skins of maturing animals of several species to be rendered into vellum of equal quality and fineness.

Fajkovic M.,The Royal Library | Fajkovic M.,Copenhagen University | Bjorneborn L.,The Royal School of Library and Information Science
Journal of Documentation | Year: 2014

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate readers’ annotations in library books and attitudes towards marginalia among library users. In particular, the study discusses how marginalia function as reader-to-reader communication. Design/methodology/approach – The study used data collected from both public library and university library collections, as well as a user survey conducted among library users. The empirical results are discussed in relation to theories of affordances, in order to understand what characterizes the socio-physical realm within which marginalia exist (RQ1), and what specific conditions make marginalia possible as a communicative act between readers (RQ2). Findings – The study suggests that marginalia in library books are mainly by-products of reading/ studying processes. The user survey depicts an overall picture of ambiguous attitudes towards marginalia. It is argued that marginalia seen as communication rely heavily on the proximity of the context and the permanence of the physical medium. Three distinctive categories are proposed for classifying marginalia according to their relationship with the text: embedded; evaluative; extratextual. In spite of being an often unwanted communication, marginalia thus still function as an additional layer to the main message of the primary text. Research limitations/implications – The findings are indicative pointing to follow-up studies that may further validate them. The study contributes to a referential frame for future studies on the subject. Originality/value – The study addresses factual and communicative aspects of marginalia less covered in previous research, thus providing a basis for further research also in relation to designing affordances for annotations in e-books. © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Christensen A.A.,Copenhagen University | Svenningsen S.R.,The Royal Library | Svenningsen S.R.,Roskilde University | Lommer M.S.,Copenhagen Open Sixth Form College | Brandt J.,Roskilde University
Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2014

Between 1992 and 2008 subsidization of mandatory set aside land under the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) gave rise to the establishment of a characteristic type of multifunctional hunting landscapes in Denmark, primarily located on fallow land in tilled valley bottoms. A national survey of these landscapes in 2006 has been carried out and 1061 hunting areas have been identified nationwide. Subsidies relating to set aside land acted as a supplementary type of income, which supported the development of multifunctional land use on marginal soils where the income from hunting and subsidies in combination was a viable alternative to monofunctional rotational agriculture. Hunting landscapes developed as the consequence of landscape management strategies designed to comply with the requirements of the CAP while improving habitat conditions for wildlife and increasing income from hunting rental activities. Forty-seven percent of the hunting landscapes in 2006 were in rotational production in 2010 while 19% were used for other agricultural purposes and 34% were taken out of the subsidy regime and removed from the general agricultural register. In 2012, a total of 431 such areas - 41% of the areas identified in 2006 - were still used for hunting. The number and geographical distribution of the hunting landscapes seems closely related to the potential average hunting rent, the level of urbanisation and the occurrence of manorial estates with traditions for multifunctional land use as part of their economic strategy. Implications for the ongoing discussion on land use policy concerning land sharing vs. land sparing is discussed. © 2014 The Royal Danish Geographical Society.

News Article | October 27, 2016

The Sobieski Hours, illuminated in Paris around 1430, and now housed in The Royal Library at Windsor Castle, is among the great works of late Gothic illumination. QUATERNIO VERLAG LUZERN in Switzerland is the first facsimile publisher to have been given permission to reproduce a medieval manuscript from the Royal Library in a fine art facsimile edition.

Brandt J.,Roskilde University | Christensen A.A.,Copenhagen University | Svenningsen S.R.,The Royal Library | Holmes E.,Roskilde University
Landscape Ecology | Year: 2013

Conceptual frameworks which have seen man and nature as being an integrated whole were widespread before they became suppressed by developments within both capitalism and socialism. Therefore an idealistic use of such concepts in scientific work has often had limited practical value. At the same time, the practice behind such conceptual frameworks has survived in many land use systems, being a fundamental source of inspiration for the modern challenge of landscape sustainability. Here, the concept and practice of carrying capacity is used as an example. We provide a modern interpretation and relate it to an empirical study of sustainable tourism in eight protected areas and their regions in the Baltic. They are subject to large differences in human pressure. The political commitment to the related EU Natura 2000 networks has been taken as our point of departure for a more detailed analysis of accessibility and its related conflicts, and opportunities for a sustainable development of tourism in and around the protected areas. It is concluded that the concept of carrying capacity cannot meaningfully be used for sustainability studies at an abstract conceptual level, but proves its relevance through a detailed context specific analyses of visitor related conflicts. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Svenningsen S.R.,The Royal Library | Svenningsen S.R.,Roskilde University | Brandt J.,Roskilde University | Christensen A.A.,Copenhagen University | And 2 more authors.
Land Use Policy | Year: 2015

This paper reports on a potential new form of data generation and data display to be used for communicating landscape change at local scales, utilizing a huge collection of oblique aerial photographs held by the Royal Library in Copenhagen. The collection contains local scale imagery covering all parts of Denmark recorded between 1930 and 1990 and thus has the potential to illustrate the changes which took place in the rural landscape as a whole after the Second World War, in ways which are suited for use at local scales. Taking into account that landscape change normally happens at a slow rate relative to the perceptive scale of humans, with fine grained changes taking place continuously in local settings, images of this kind present themselves as a way for the general public to become aware of changes which might otherwise be overlooked. To a still more urbanized population where most people do not have an every-day experience with rural landscape change, the images may be a starting point for a renewed engagement with landscapes, not just perceived as a scenery, but rather as a process of interaction with the environment. In order to inform a wider range of people, in competition with other types of information, the imagery provides a point of reference - a single farm or landscape known to the users - which people without specific training in landscape research can relate to. The use of a crowdsourcing approach in data generation on a webgis application means that the broader public is both involved in the creation of the data and in the discussion about the changes observed, which become visible when comparing old aerial photographs to the present landscape. In combination with the very local nature of the aerial photographs, this opens up the possibility that the images could serve as a communicational bridge between "abstract" scientific knowledge about landscape change (e.g. change in hedgerow density per year) and the local landscapes where people are living. As such, the approach described in this paper may contribute to the objectives set out in the European landscape convention to facilitate an increased understanding of landscape issues among the public through a democratic learning process. The article concludes, that this approach has a huge potential, although some difficulties exist, relating to the challenge of maintaining a focus on the landscape when using a form of communication which is dialogue-based and relatively unstructured compared to approaches embedded within conventional learning environments. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Elmasry A.,Copenhagen University | Jensen C.,The Royal Library | Katajainen J.,Copenhagen University
Theory of Computing Systems | Year: 2012

We introduce two numeral systems, the magical skew system and the regular skew system, and contribute to their theory development. For both systems, increments and decrements are supported using a constant number of digit changes per operation. Moreover, for the regular skew system, the operation of adding two numbers is supported efficiently. Our basic message is that some data-structural problems are better formulated at the level of a numeral system. The relationship between number representations and data representations, as well as operations on them, can be utilized for an elegant description and a clean analysis of algorithms. In many cases, a pure mathematical treatment may also be interesting in its own right. As an application of numeral systems to data structures, we consider how to implement a priority queue as a forest of pointer-based binary heaps. Some of the number-representation features that influence the efficiency of the priority-queue operations include weighting of digits, carry-propagation and borrowing mechanisms. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Stachurska A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Pieta M.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Ussing A.P.,The Royal Library | Kapron A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Kwiecinska N.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2010

The objective of the study was to determine which cross-country obstacles are more difficult for eventing horses. Jumping scores were considered in terms of the horse's reaction to novelty and to the fearfulness of novel objects which are the fences situated in novel terrain. The data concerned 11 classes of One to Four Star level (stars showing the difficulty of the class) held at the Olympic Games and three international Three Day Events. A total of 400 entries, in which 259 horses jumped 372 obstacles were considered. Scores of 11,341 jumps at particular fences were categorized either as faulty jumps or non-faulty jumps. Factors describing the fences versus the jumping scores were studied with least square analysis of variance, with respect to the interaction between the star level and the fence traits. The overall frequency of faults at the cross-country amounted to 4.33 ± 0.57%. Among the effects analyzed, the difficulty of cross-country fences for the horses depends upon whether an obstacle is single or is an element of a combination, whether it is straight or requiring an effort in both height and spread, is broad or narrow, has a solid top or a brush, has an alternative or not and whether it is a water crossing or not. At One Star level, the less experienced horses react differently to certain fence traits compared to horses participating in Three or Four Star levels. It is concluded that the equine visionary system, being less developed towards identification of stationary objects than the human visionary system may be a key towards explaining the horse's behaviour while jumping the obstacle. The height-spread obstacles, those of the narrow front, with the brush and with the alternative seem to involve more faults because of the equine low-acuity vision. The same reason may justify the similar frequency of faults at the single obstacles and the first elements in combinations. Accurate methods of measuring equine vision would complement behavioural tests and should both be introduced into the selection of eventing horses. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Svenningsen S.R.,The Royal Library
Cartographic Journal | Year: 2016

Within the history of cartography, relatively little attention has been devoted to the study of the growing body of maps and spatial data focusing on environmental issues. This is rather surprising, considering the importance of this type of cartography in the handling of the complex environmental problems of modern society. This paper analyses the development of thematic maps and spatial data focusing on the terrestrial environment of Danish landscapes. The paper is introduced with a review of the concept of environmental cartography, followed by a historical analysis of the development of environmental mapping in Denmark. Results suggest that there has been a change in the content and aim of environmental cartography in the twentieth century, from an initial focus on mapping potentials for land use improvement and optimization of the economic outputs from engagement with terrestrial ecosystems, to a focus on monitoring ecosystems and regulation of human intervention. Finally, the usefulness of the concept environmental cartography to frame analytical work dealing with the still increasing number of maps produced for environmental purposes within the history of cartography, is evaluated. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis, 2016.

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