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Stachurska A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Pieta M.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Ussing A.P.,The Royal Library | Kapron A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Kwiecinska N.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2010

The objective of the study was to determine which cross-country obstacles are more difficult for eventing horses. Jumping scores were considered in terms of the horse's reaction to novelty and to the fearfulness of novel objects which are the fences situated in novel terrain. The data concerned 11 classes of One to Four Star level (stars showing the difficulty of the class) held at the Olympic Games and three international Three Day Events. A total of 400 entries, in which 259 horses jumped 372 obstacles were considered. Scores of 11,341 jumps at particular fences were categorized either as faulty jumps or non-faulty jumps. Factors describing the fences versus the jumping scores were studied with least square analysis of variance, with respect to the interaction between the star level and the fence traits. The overall frequency of faults at the cross-country amounted to 4.33 ± 0.57%. Among the effects analyzed, the difficulty of cross-country fences for the horses depends upon whether an obstacle is single or is an element of a combination, whether it is straight or requiring an effort in both height and spread, is broad or narrow, has a solid top or a brush, has an alternative or not and whether it is a water crossing or not. At One Star level, the less experienced horses react differently to certain fence traits compared to horses participating in Three or Four Star levels. It is concluded that the equine visionary system, being less developed towards identification of stationary objects than the human visionary system may be a key towards explaining the horse's behaviour while jumping the obstacle. The height-spread obstacles, those of the narrow front, with the brush and with the alternative seem to involve more faults because of the equine low-acuity vision. The same reason may justify the similar frequency of faults at the single obstacles and the first elements in combinations. Accurate methods of measuring equine vision would complement behavioural tests and should both be introduced into the selection of eventing horses. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Svenningsen S.R.,The Royal Library
Cartographic Journal | Year: 2016

Within the history of cartography, relatively little attention has been devoted to the study of the growing body of maps and spatial data focusing on environmental issues. This is rather surprising, considering the importance of this type of cartography in the handling of the complex environmental problems of modern society. This paper analyses the development of thematic maps and spatial data focusing on the terrestrial environment of Danish landscapes. The paper is introduced with a review of the concept of environmental cartography, followed by a historical analysis of the development of environmental mapping in Denmark. Results suggest that there has been a change in the content and aim of environmental cartography in the twentieth century, from an initial focus on mapping potentials for land use improvement and optimization of the economic outputs from engagement with terrestrial ecosystems, to a focus on monitoring ecosystems and regulation of human intervention. Finally, the usefulness of the concept environmental cartography to frame analytical work dealing with the still increasing number of maps produced for environmental purposes within the history of cartography, is evaluated. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis, 2016. Source


Fajkovic M.,The Royal Library | Fajkovic M.,Copenhagen University | Bjorneborn L.,The Royal School of Library and Information Science
Journal of Documentation | Year: 2014

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate readers’ annotations in library books and attitudes towards marginalia among library users. In particular, the study discusses how marginalia function as reader-to-reader communication. Design/methodology/approach – The study used data collected from both public library and university library collections, as well as a user survey conducted among library users. The empirical results are discussed in relation to theories of affordances, in order to understand what characterizes the socio-physical realm within which marginalia exist (RQ1), and what specific conditions make marginalia possible as a communicative act between readers (RQ2). Findings – The study suggests that marginalia in library books are mainly by-products of reading/ studying processes. The user survey depicts an overall picture of ambiguous attitudes towards marginalia. It is argued that marginalia seen as communication rely heavily on the proximity of the context and the permanence of the physical medium. Three distinctive categories are proposed for classifying marginalia according to their relationship with the text: embedded; evaluative; extratextual. In spite of being an often unwanted communication, marginalia thus still function as an additional layer to the main message of the primary text. Research limitations/implications – The findings are indicative pointing to follow-up studies that may further validate them. The study contributes to a referential frame for future studies on the subject. Originality/value – The study addresses factual and communicative aspects of marginalia less covered in previous research, thus providing a basis for further research also in relation to designing affordances for annotations in e-books. © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Christensen A.A.,Copenhagen University | Svenningsen S.R.,The Royal Library | Svenningsen S.R.,Roskilde University | Lommer M.S.,Copenhagen Open Sixth Form College | Brandt J.,Roskilde University
Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2014

Between 1992 and 2008 subsidization of mandatory set aside land under the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) gave rise to the establishment of a characteristic type of multifunctional hunting landscapes in Denmark, primarily located on fallow land in tilled valley bottoms. A national survey of these landscapes in 2006 has been carried out and 1061 hunting areas have been identified nationwide. Subsidies relating to set aside land acted as a supplementary type of income, which supported the development of multifunctional land use on marginal soils where the income from hunting and subsidies in combination was a viable alternative to monofunctional rotational agriculture. Hunting landscapes developed as the consequence of landscape management strategies designed to comply with the requirements of the CAP while improving habitat conditions for wildlife and increasing income from hunting rental activities. Forty-seven percent of the hunting landscapes in 2006 were in rotational production in 2010 while 19% were used for other agricultural purposes and 34% were taken out of the subsidy regime and removed from the general agricultural register. In 2012, a total of 431 such areas - 41% of the areas identified in 2006 - were still used for hunting. The number and geographical distribution of the hunting landscapes seems closely related to the potential average hunting rent, the level of urbanisation and the occurrence of manorial estates with traditions for multifunctional land use as part of their economic strategy. Implications for the ongoing discussion on land use policy concerning land sharing vs. land sparing is discussed. © 2014 The Royal Danish Geographical Society. Source


Elmasry A.,Copenhagen University | Jensen C.,The Royal Library | Katajainen J.,Copenhagen University
Theory of Computing Systems | Year: 2012

We introduce two numeral systems, the magical skew system and the regular skew system, and contribute to their theory development. For both systems, increments and decrements are supported using a constant number of digit changes per operation. Moreover, for the regular skew system, the operation of adding two numbers is supported efficiently. Our basic message is that some data-structural problems are better formulated at the level of a numeral system. The relationship between number representations and data representations, as well as operations on them, can be utilized for an elegant description and a clean analysis of algorithms. In many cases, a pure mathematical treatment may also be interesting in its own right. As an application of numeral systems to data structures, we consider how to implement a priority queue as a forest of pointer-based binary heaps. Some of the number-representation features that influence the efficiency of the priority-queue operations include weighting of digits, carry-propagation and borrowing mechanisms. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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