The Royal Institute of International Affairs

London, United Kingdom

The Royal Institute of International Affairs

London, United Kingdom
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2012.2.2-3 | Award Amount: 2.81M | Year: 2012

Environmental crime is a threat to environmental, social and economic sustainability and is in conflict with key commitments and strategies of the European Union, including the Europe 2020 Strategy. EFFACE will propose effective and feasible policy options for the EU to combat environmental crime. The recently adopted Environmental Crime Directive, the Ship-Source Pollution Directive, and the new provisions of the Lisbon Treaty have created new instruments and opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of EU measures against environmental crime through harmonisation and co-ordination. However, utilisation of these opportunities suffers from a serious lack of information on environmental crime: e.g. harmonisation measures based on the new Article 83(2) TFEU depend on the availability of reliable information on the impacts of environmental crime. EFFACE will help to address this gap by generating relevant information. Drawing on a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches and data and an in-depth investigation of different types of environmental crime, EFFACE will provide an assessment of the main costs, impacts and causes of environmental crime in the EU, including those linked to the EU, but occurring outside its territory, complemented by a comprehensive analysis of the status quo in terms of existing instruments, actors and institutions. A SWOT analysis will identify strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities associated with the EUs current efforts to combat environmental crime. Feasible policy options for harmonisation and better co-ordination of actors will then be developed with the help of, i.a., typologies of different approaches to harmonisation, sanctioning and strategic enforcement. These policy options will consider the use of policy mixes and innovative approaches to govern such mixes. Stakeholder involvement in EFFACE through interactive policy analysis will promote mutual learning with and among a broad range of stakeholders.

Ross E.,The Royal Institute of International Affairs
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

Management, coordination and logistics were critical for responding effectively to the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone, and the duration of the epidemic provided a rare opportunity to study the management of an outbreak that endured long enough for the response to mature. This qualitative study examines the structures and systems used to manage the response, and how and why they changed and evolved. It also discusses the quality of relationships between key responders and their impact. Early coordination mechanisms failed and the President took operational control away from the Ministry of Health and Sanitation and established a National Ebola Response Centre, headed by the Minister of Defence, and District Ebola Response Centres. British civilian and military personnel were deeply embedded in this command and control architecture and, together with the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response lead, were the dominant coordination partners at the national level. Coordination, politics and tensions in relationships hampered the response, but as the response mechanisms matured, coordination improved and rifts healed. Simultaneously setting up new organizations, processes and plans as well as attempting to reconcile different cultures, working practices and personalities in such an emergency was bound to be challenging. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2011.4.3-1 | Award Amount: 3.23M | Year: 2012

In an era of global flux, emerging powers and growing interconnectedness, transatlantic relations appear to have lost their bearings. As the international system fragments into different constellations of state and non-state powers across different policy domains, the US and the EU can no longer claim exclusive leadership in global governance. Not only the ability, but also the willingness of the US and the EU to exercise leadership together can no longer be taken for granted. Political, economic, and social elites on both shores of the Atlantic express different views on whether the US and the EU should be bound together, freelance, or seek alternative partnerships in a confusing multipolar world. Traditional paradigms to understand the transatlantic relationship are thus wanting. A new approach is needed to pinpoint the direction transatlantic relations are taking. TRANSWORLD provides such an approach. By combining an inter-disciplinary analysis of transatlantic relations, including desk research, in-depth interviews, an elite survey and a sophisticated Delphi exercise to elaborate solid policy proposals, TRANSWORLD would: a) ascertain, differentiating among four policy domains (economic, security, environment, and human rights/democracy), whether transatlantic relations are drifting apart, adapting along an ad hoc cooperation-based pattern, or evolving into a different but resilient special partnership; b) assess the role of a re-defined transatlantic relationship in the global governance architecture; c) provide tested policy recommendations on how the US and the EU could best cooperate to enhance the viability, effectiveness, and accountability of governance structures. In so doing, TRANSWORLD, which features a thirteen-partner transatlantic consortium of attested academic, policy, dissemination and management excellence, would contribute to an inter-disciplinary transatlantic research area, with in-built connections to policy-making.

Blyth W.,Oxford Energy Associates | Blyth W.,London Business School | Blyth W.,The Royal Institute of International Affairs | Bunn D.,London Business School
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Within the EU, there have been calls for governments to provide greater certainty over carbon prices, even though it is evident that their price risk is not entirely due to policy uncertainty. We develop a stochastic simulation model of price formation in the EU ETS to analyse the coevolution of policy, market and technology risks under different initiatives. The current situation of a weak (20%) overall abatement target motivates various technology-support interventions, elevating policy uncertainty as the major source of carbon price risk. In contrast, taking a firm decision to move to a more stringent 30% cap would leave the EU-ETS price formation driven much more by market forces than by policy risks. This leads to considerations of how much risk mitigation by governments would be appropriate, and how much should be taken as business risk by the market participants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Heymann D.L.,The Royal Institute of International Affairs | Heymann D.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Dixon M.,The Royal Institute of International Affairs
Microbiology Spectrum | Year: 2013

The majority of emerging infectious diseases have their source in animals, and emergence occurs at the humananimal interface, when infections in animals breach the species barrier to infect humans, the population in which they are often first identified. The response is often a series of emergency activities to contain and manage the infection in human populations, and at the same time to identify the source of the infection in nature. If an infection is found to have a source in animals, and if animals cause a continuous threat of human infection, culling is often recommended, with severe economic impact. Currently the animal and human medicine sectors are working toward interacting more closely at the animal-human interface through joint surveillance and risk assessment, and research is under way in geographic areas where emergence at the animal-human interface has occurred in the past. The goal of this research is to identify infectious organisms in tropical and other wild animals, to genetically sequence these organisms, and to attempt to predict which organisms have the potential to emerge in human populations. It may be more cost-effective, however, to learn from past emergence events and to shift the paradigm from disease surveillance, detection, and response in humans to prevention of emergence at the source by understanding and mitigating the factors, or determinants, that influence animal infection. These determinants are clearly understood from the study of previous emergence events and include humaninduced changes in natural environments, urban areas, and agricultural systems; raising and processing of animal-based foods; and the roles of global trade, migration, and climate change. Better understanding of these factors gained from epidemiological investigation of past and present emergence events, and modeling and study of the cost-effectiveness of interventions that could result in their mitigation, could provide evidence necessary to better address the political and economic barriers to prevention of infections in animals. Such economically convincing arguments for change and mitigation are required because of the basic difference in animal health, driven by the need for profit, and human health, driven by the need to save lives. © 2013 American Society for Microbiology.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2013.4.3-1 | Award Amount: 4.08M | Year: 2014

The CAERUS consortium aims to identify humanitarian relief actions that pave the way for human development and stability in post-conflict societies. Why have some countries successfully escaped the cycle of violence and conflict where others seem to be trapped? What has been the specific role of national, international and particularly European post-conflict relief action and development cooperation in these cases? This project will undertake humanitarian policy analysis on a global and regional scale, examining ways in which these policies support or undermine development and international security. It will also implement population-based studies in key crises-affected areas to obtain field evidence. Research will focus on health and educational policies. Many crises and conflicts entail a substantial degradation in human and social capital, creating barriers to post-conflict recovery and stabilization. The instant re-establishment of access to primary and secondary education, as well as to basic health services, is vital as these are tangible peace dividends. Offering young people real opportunities aside from warfare, and lowering the burden of disease and mortality in war-torn populations dries up the breeding ground of violence and conflict. Moreover, it potentially lowers migratory pressure towards the European Union from post-conflict societies. In addition, the CAERUS project seeks to detect barriers to provision of basic services in post-conflict settings. It will also assess how European technologies, especially field telecommunications and mobile laboratory capacities, can be used to increase timeliness and effectiveness of service provision in remote areas. These activities will, at the same time, increase European capacities to respond to outbreaks of rare and emerging diseases with pandemic potential. The consortium involves partners from Belgium, Norway, the Netherlands, Austria, United Kingdom and India.

Balasegaram M.,Access France | Clift C.,The Royal Institute of International Affairs | Rottingen J.-A.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Rottingen J.-A.,Harvard University
Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics | Year: 2015

The dangers presented by antibiotic resistance (ABR) have now established themselves as a global health security issue. From an international policy perspective, three key pillars have been established - responsible access, conservation, and innovation. These pillars are intrinsically linked, meaning that any attempt to address one, must take into account the implications for the other two. This article attempts to address all three of these pillars. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-4.3-01 | Award Amount: 1.86M | Year: 2009

In 2007, China overtook Germany as the worlds largest exporter. Its trade surplus with the EU is rising at $20 million an hour. China makes up one-third of the annual increase in world oil demand, and emits the most greenhouse gases. Engaging a rapidly rising China is a great challenge for the EU. To do this more effectively, the EU needs a comprehensive understanding of China, especially of how the EU and its China initiatives and strategies are perceived in China itself. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this study looks into how the EU is perceived by the Chinese general public, government officials, intellectuals, business and civil society. It will produce a comprehensive picture of how Chinese people see the EU: how China views its opportunities and challenges in dealing with the EU, how different government agencies view the EU, how government views differ from those of business and civil society, and how opinion in Beijing differs from that in the provinces. The recommendations from this study will lead to much more effective policies for the EU to deal with China, helping to reduce market restrictions, resolve the conflict over Chinas exchange rate policy, lift barriers to EU investment in China, increase EU `green technology exports etc. A mere 5% increase in EU exports to China will make a difference of 3.2 billion per year to the EU economy. Our policy recommendations will facilitate greater cooperation on issues such as the Iran nuclear crisis, significantly improving the EUs security. Our findings will contribute to a better projection of the EUs image, enhancing the EUs soft power in China. The project brings together a uniquely strong team from the University of Nottinghams China Policy Institute, Leiden University, Jacobs University Bremen and Chatham House, as well as two strong Chinese partners. New knowledge from this research will help advance a number of social science disciplines.

Gross R.,Imperial College London | Blyth W.,The Royal Institute of International Affairs | Heptonstall P.,Imperial College London
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

Energy policy goals frequently depend upon investment in particular technologies, or categories of technology. Whilst the British government has often espoused the virtues of technological neutrality, UK policies now seek to promote nuclear power, coal with CO2 capture and storage, and renewable energy.Policy decisions are often informed by estimates of cost per unit of output (for example, £/MWh), also known as levelised costs. Estimates of these costs for different technologies are often used to provide a 'ballpark' guide to the levels of financial support needed (if any) to encourage uptake, or direct investment away from the technologies the market might otherwise have chosen. Levelised cost estimates can also help to indicate the cost of meeting public policy objectives, and whether there is a rationale for intervention (for example, based on net welfare gains).In the UK electricity sector, investment is undertaken by private companies, not governments. Investment is driven by expected returns, in the light of a range of risks related to both costs and revenues. Revenue risks are not captured in estimates of cost or cost-related risks. An important category of revenue risk is associated with electricity price fluctuations. Exposure to price risks differs by technology. Low electricity prices represent a revenue risk to technologies that cannot influence electricity prices. By contrast, 'price makers' that set marginal prices are, to an extent, able to pass fuel price increases through to consumers. They have an inherent 'hedge' against fuel and electricity price fluctuations.Based on recent research by the UK Energy Research Centre, this paper considers the implications of such price risks for policy design. The authors contrast the range of levelised costs estimated for different generating options with the spread of returns each is exposed to when electricity price fluctuations are factored in. Drawing on recent policy experiences in the renewable energy arena, in the UK and elsewhere, the authors provide an assessment of investment risk in policy effectiveness and consider how policy design can increase or ameliorate price risk. They discuss the circumstances under which policy goals might be best served by 'socialising' price risk, through fixed price policies. The importance of increased and explicit attention to revenue risk in policymaking is discussed, along with the means by which this might be achieved. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Executive Director at Access Campaign, The Royal Institute of International Affairs and Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Type: | Journal: The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics | Year: 2015

The dangers presented by antibiotic resistance (ABR) have now established themselves as a global health security issue. From an international policy perspective, three key pillars have been established - responsible access, conservation, and innovation. These pillars are intrinsically linked, meaning that any attempt to address one, must take into account the implications for the other two. This article attempts to address all three of these pillars.

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