The Royal Academy of Music is a conservatoire in London, England and a constituent college of the University of London. It was founded in 1822 and is Britain's oldest degree-granting music school. It received a Royal Charter in 1830. It is a registered charity under English law. Wikipedia.
Witek M.A.G.,University of Oxford |
Clarke E.F.,University of Oxford |
Wallentin M.,Aarhus University Hospital |
Wallentin M.,University of Aarhus |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a web-based survey which investigated the relationship between syncopation and ratings of wanting to move and experienced pleasure. Participants heard funk drum-breaks with varying degrees of syncopation and audio entropy, and rated the extent to which the drum-breaks made them want to move and how much pleasure they experienced. While entropy was found to be a poor predictor of wanting to move and pleasure, the results showed that medium degrees of syncopation elicited the most desire to move and the most pleasure, particularly for participants who enjoy dancing to music. Hence, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between syncopation, body-movement and pleasure, and syncopation seems to be an important structural factor in embodied and affective responses to groove.©2014 Witek et al.
Hooper M.,The Royal Academy of Music
Leonardo | Year: 2013
Christopher Redgate is developing a new oboe for the 21st century and is working with composers to develop new music for the instrument. This article addresses the early stages of his collaboration with Sam Hayden. It demonstrates some of the coordination problems at the inception of a project that includes an instrument with a long history. The article sets out some of the ongoing concerns in documenting this work, arguing that the oboe itself is one of the principle forces shaping a collaboration that is future-focused. © 2013 ISAST.
Petersen B.,Aarhus University Hospital |
Petersen B.,The Royal Academy of Music |
Gjedde A.,Aarhus University Hospital |
Gjedde A.,Copenhagen University |
And 4 more authors.
Neural Plasticity | Year: 2013
The most dramatic progress in the restoration of hearing takes place in the first months after cochlear implantation. To map the brain activity underlying this process, we used positron emission tomography at three time points: within 14 days, three months, and six months after switch-on. Fifteen recently implanted adult implant recipients listened to running speech or speech-like noise in four sequential PET sessions at each milestone. CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss showed differential activation of left superior temporal gyrus during speech and speech-like stimuli, unlike CI listeners with prelingual hearing loss. Furthermore, Broca's area was activated as an effect of time, but only in CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss. The study demonstrates that adaptation to the cochlear implant is highly related to the history of hearing loss. Speech processing in patients whose hearing loss occurred after the acquisition of language involves brain areas associated with speech comprehension, which is not the case for patients whose hearing loss occurred before the acquisition of language. Finally, the findings confirm the key role of Broca's area in restoration of speech perception, but only in individuals in whom Broca's area has been active prior to the loss of hearing. © 2013 B. Petersen et al.
Garza Villarreal E.A.,Aarhus University Hospital |
Garza Villarreal E.A.,The Royal Academy of Music |
Brattico E.,University of Helsinki |
Leino S.,University of Helsinki |
And 3 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2011
The human brain is constantly predicting the auditory environment by representing sequential similarities and extracting temporal regularities. It has been proposed that simple auditory regularities are extracted at lower stations of the auditory cortex and more complex ones at other brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex. Deviations from auditory regularities elicit a family of early negative electric potentials distributed over the frontal regions of the scalp. In this study, we wished to disentangle the brain processes associated with sequential vs. hierarchical auditory regularities in a musical context by studying the event-related potentials (ERPs), the behavioral responses to violations of these regularities, and the localization of the underlying ERP generators using two different source analysis algorithms. To this aim, participants listened to musical cadences constituted by seven chords, each containing either harmonically congruous chords, harmonically incongruous chords, or harmonically congruous but mistuned chords. EEG was recorded and multiple source analysis was performed. Incongruous chords violating the rules of harmony elicited a bilateral ERAN, whereas mistuned chords within chord sequences elicited a right-lateralized MMN. We found that the dominant cortical sources for the ERAN were localized around Broca's area and its right homolog, whereas the MMN generators were localized around the primary auditory cortex. These findings suggest a predominant role of the auditory cortices in detecting sequential scale regularities and the posterior prefrontal cortex in parsing hierarchical regularities in music. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brattico E.,The Royal Academy of Music |
Brattico E.,University of Helsinki |
Brattico E.,Aalto University |
Bogert B.,University of Helsinki |
And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2016
Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians. © 2016 Brattico, Bogert, Alluri, Tervaniemi, Eerola and Jacobsen.
Shoemark H.,Temple University |
Shoemark H.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute |
Hanson-Abromeit D.,University of Kansas |
Stewart L.,Goldsmiths, University of London |
Stewart L.,The Royal Academy of Music
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Music-based intervention for hospitalized newborn infants has traditionally been based in a biomedical model, with physiological stability as the prime objective. More recent applications are grounded in other theories, including attachment, trauma and neurological models in which infant, parent and the dyadic interaction may be viewed as a dynamic system bound by the common context of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The immature state of the preterm infant’s auditory processing system requires a careful and individualized approach for the introduction of purposeful auditory experience intended to support development. The infant’s experience of an unpredictable auditory environment is further compromised by a potential lack of meaningful auditory stimulation. Parents often feel disconnected from their own capacities to nurture their infant with potentially life-long implications for the infant’s neurobehavioral and psychological well-being. This perspectives paper will outline some neurological considerations for auditory processing in the premature infant to frame a premise for music-based interventions. A hypothetical clinical case will illustrate the application of music by a music therapist with an infant and family in NICU. © 2015 Shoemark, Hanson-Abromeit and Stewart.
Konvalinka I.,Aarhus University Hospital |
Vuust P.,Aarhus University Hospital |
Vuust P.,The Royal Academy of Music |
Roepstorff A.,Aarhus University Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2010
To study the mechanisms of coordination that are fundamental to successful interactions we carried out a joint finger tapping experiment in which pairs of participants were asked to maintain a given beat while synchronizing to an auditory signal coming from the other person or the computer. When both were hearing each other, the pair became a coupled, mutually and continuously adaptive unit of two "hyper-followers", with their intertap intervals (ITIs) oscillating in opposite directions on a tap-to-tap basis. There was thus no evidence for the emergence of a leader-follower strategy. We also found that dyads were equally good at synchronizing with the irregular, but responsive other as with the predictable, unresponsive computer. However, they performed worse when the "other" was both irregular and unresponsive. We thus propose that interpersonal coordination is facilitated by the mutual abilities to (a) predict the other's subsequent action and (b) adapt accordingly on a millisecond timescale. © 2010 The Experimental Psychology Society.
Dohn A.,University of Aarhus |
Dohn A.,The Royal Academy of Music |
Garza-Villarreal E.A.,University of Aarhus |
Garza-Villarreal E.A.,The Royal Academy of Music |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r =. 46, p =. 003). However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population. © 2012 Dohn et al.
News Article | December 9, 2016
A new study from Center for Music in the Brain, Denmark, shows that participants receiving oxytocin -- a hormone known to promote social bonding -- are more synchronized when finger-tapping together, than participants receiving placebo When standing in a crowd at a concert, clapping hands along with the music on stage, it may be that people with higher levels of oxytocin are better synchronised with the beat of the music than those with lower levels of oxytocin. A new study from Center for Music in the Brain (MIB) Aarhus University/The Royal Academy of Music, Denmark, published in Scientific Reports on the 8th of December 2016, shows that participants receiving oxytocin - a hormone known to promote social bonding - are more synchronized when finger-tapping together, than participants receiving placebo. This effect was observed when pairs of participants, placed in separate rooms tapped together in a leader/follower relationship. When people synchronise their movements together, for example by walking in time, clapping or making music, they seem to like each other more and report feeling greater affiliation with each other. Oxytocin is a naturally occurring hormone that has been shown to promote social interaction, such as cooperation and affiliation. However, until now it has been unclear whether the social effect of oxytocin is a direct one, or whether oxytocin in fact primarily affects synchronisation and only secondarily social behaviours. We set out to test these questions by measuring whether increased levels of oxytocin affected how pairs of participants synchronised together to a steady beat. One group of pairs received oxytocin through nasal spray, and another group received a placebo, also through nasal spray. Our results indicate that oxytocin indeed affects synchronisation between participants but we did not find that oxytocin influenced how much tappers liked their tapping partners. The followers in the oxytocin group were less variable in their tapping to the beat suggesting that they were better at predicting the taps of their leaders. Thus oxytocin's social effect may be explained by its role in facilitating prediction in interaction, even in the absence of subjectively experienced social affiliation. The ability to synchronise to a musical beat is largely a human skill. Our study contributes to our understanding of how this form of human behaviour is affected by socio-biological factors, such as oxytocin and leader-follower relationships. It also highlights how music creates and maintains social cohesion in an evolutionary perspective. The study was performed in collaboration with Assoc. Prof. Ivana Konvalinka (DTU). * The Danish National Research Foundation's Center for Music In the Brain (MIB) is an interdisciplinary research center addressing the dual questions of how music is processed in the brain and how this can inform our understanding of fundamental principles behind brain processing in general. The center employs state-of-the-art scanning methods (MR, fMRI, MEG, EEG, PET) and behavioral measures. MIB is a collaboration between Aarhus University (AU) and The Royal Academy of Music (RAMA) located at AU. With a strong foundation in music practice and theory at the highest level, and a focus on clinical application of music, MIB combines neuroscientific, musicological and psychological research in music perception, action, emotion and learning, with the potential to test the most prominent theories of brain function, and to influence the way we play, teach, use, and listen to music. http://dg.
News Article | November 3, 2016
WASHINGTON - If you've found yourself singing along to Lady Gaga's "Bad Romance" hours after you switched the radio off, you are not alone. Certain songs do tend to stick in our heads more than others for some very specific reasons, according to research published by the American Psychological Association. These songs, often called earworms, are usually faster, with a fairly generic and easy-to-remember melody but with some particular intervals, such as leaps or repetitions that set them apart from the average pop song, according to the first large-scale study of earworms. The article appears online in the APA journal Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts. In addition to "Bad Romance," examples of common earworms named in the study include "Don't Stop Believing" by Journey and, perhaps not surprisingly, "Can't Get You Out Of My Head" by Kylie Minogue. "These musically sticky songs seem to have quite a fast tempo along with a common melodic shape and unusual intervals or repetitions like we can hear in the opening riff of 'Smoke On The Water' by Deep Purple or in the chorus of 'Bad Romance,'" said the study's lead author, Kelly Jakubowski, PhD, of Durham University. She conducted the study while at Goldsmiths, University of London. Earworms are also more likely to get more radio time and be featured at the top of the charts, which is not surprising. However, there has previously been limited evidence about what makes such songs catchy regardless of popularity or how often people may have heard them. "Our findings show that you can, to some extent, predict which songs are going to get stuck in people's heads based on the song's melodic content. This could help aspiring song-writers or advertisers write a jingle everyone will remember for days or months afterwards," said Jakubowski. The study found that the tunes most likely to get stuck in people's heads were those with more common global melodic contours, meaning they have overall melodic shapes commonly found in Western pop music. For example, one of the most common contour patterns is heard in "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star," where the first phrase rises in pitch and the second falls. Numerous other nursery tunes follow the same pattern, making them easy for young children to remember, according to the authors. The opening riff of "Moves Like Jagger" by Maroon 5, one of the top named earworm tunes in the study, also follows this common contour pattern of rising then falling in pitch. In addition to a common melodic shape, the other crucial ingredient in the earworm formula is an unusual interval structure in the song, such as some unexpected leaps or more repeated notes than you would expect to hear in the average pop song, according to the study. The instrumental interlude of "My Sharona" by the Knack and "In The Mood" by Glen Miller both have this unusual interval structure. The researchers asked 3,000 people to name their most frequent earworm tunes and compared these to tunes that had never been named as earworms in the database but were a match in terms of popularity and how recently they had been in the United Kingdom music charts. The melodic features of the earworm and non-earworm tunes were then analyzed and compared. Songs were limited to popular genres, such as pop, rock, rap and rhythm and blues. The data for the study were collected from 2010 to 2013. Studies of earworms can help to understand how brain networks, which are involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts, behave in different people, the authors said. Jakubowski offered tips for how to get rid of an earworm: Article: "Dissecting an earworm: Melodic features and song popularity predict involuntary musical imagery," by Kelly Jakubowski, PhD, Goldsmiths, University of London; Sebastian Finkel, MS, University of Tübingen; Lauren Stewart, PhD, Goldsmiths, University of London and Aarhus University and The Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Denmark; and Daniel Müllensiefen, PhD, Goldsmiths, University of London. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, published online Nov. 3, 2016. Full text of the article is available from the APA Public Affairs Office and at http://www. . The American Psychological Association, in Washington, D.C., is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. APA's membership includes more than 117,500 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 54 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives. http://www.