The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health

Bucksburn, United Kingdom

The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health

Bucksburn, United Kingdom
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Rios-de alvarez L.,Central University of Venezuela | Jackson F.,Moredun Research Institute | Greer A.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | Bartley Y.,Moredun Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2012

Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2), phytohemagglutinin L4 (PHA-L4), phytohemagglutinin E3L (PHA-E3L), kidney bean albumin (KBA), Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin (RPA), Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MAA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) to disrupt the feeding of the first stage larvae (L 1) of the sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated using a larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT). Only PHA-E3L, WGA and Con A had a potent effect on disrupting larval feeding of all of the three species of GIN investigated. The lectin concentration required to inhibit feeding in 50% of L 1 (IC50) was 7.3±1.2, 8.3±1.4 and 4.3±1.7μg/ml for PHA-E3L; 59.1±32.4, 58.7±11.9 and 8.1±7.0μg/ml for Con A and 78.9±11.2, 69.4±8.1 and 28.0±14.1μg/ml for WGA for T. circumcincta, H. contortus and T. colubriformis larvae, respectively (P=0.006). The addition of the lectin inhibitors fetuin, glucose/mannose or N-acetylglucosamine for PHA-E3L, Con A and WGA, respectively, caused an increase in the proportion of larvae that had fed at all concentrations for PHA-E3L only. In experiment 2, the effect of extracts from the tropical plants Azadiractha indica, Trichanthera gigantea, Morus alba, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on the feeding behaviour of H. contortus L 1, was examined. A. indica, T. gigantea and M. alba failed to inhibit 50% of larvae from feeding at concentrations up to 10mg plant extract per ml. In contrast, both G. sepium and L. leucocephala demonstrated a dose-dependent effect on larval feeding with respective IC50 estimates (mean±s.e.) of 0.015mg/ml±0.001 and 3.465mg/ml±0.144, effects which were partly reversed by the inclusion of either the tannin inhibitor polyethylene glycol or the lectin inhibitor Fetuin. These studies demonstrate that plant lectins can have an inhibitory effect on the feeding behaviour of first stage larvae of ovine GIN in vitro. Moreover they also provide novel evidence that lectins may contribute to the anthelmintic properties of some tropical forage plant extracts, such as G. sepium and L. leucocephala. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Institute of Psychiatry, University of Liverpool, The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health and University of Aberdeen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The pharmacogenomics journal | Year: 2016

The Bicaudal C Homolog 1 (BICC1) gene, which encodes an RNA binding protein, has been identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) as a candidate gene associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We explored the hypothesis that MDD associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affected the ability of cis-regulatory elements within intron 3 of the BICC1 gene to modulate the activity of the BICC1 promoter region. We initially established that the BICC1 promoter drove BICC1 mRNA expression in amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Intriguingly, we provide evidence that MDD associated polymorphisms alter the ability of the BICC1 promoter to respond to PKA signalling within amygdala neurones. Considering the known role of amygdala PKA pathways in fear learning and mood these observations suggest a possible mechanism through which allelic changes in the regulation of the BICC1 gene in amygdala neurones may contribute to mood disorders. Our findings also suggest a novel direction for the identification of novel drug targets and the design of future personalised therapeutics.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 6 October 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.62.


Lyons D.J.,Karolinska Institutet | Lyons D.J.,The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health | Broberger C.,Karolinska Institutet
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2014

Neuroendocrine tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons tonically inhibit pituitary release of the hormone, prolactin. Through the powerful actions of prolactin in promoting lactation and maternal behaviour while suppressing sexual drive and fertility, TIDA neurons play a key role in reproduction. We summarize insights from recent in vitro studies into the membrane properties and network behaviour of TIDA neurons including the observations that TIDA neurons exhibit a robust oscillation that is synchronized between cells and depends on intact gap junction communication. Comparisons are made with phasic firing patterns in other neuronal populations. Modulators involved in the control of lactation - including serotonin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and prolactin itself - have been shown to change the electrical behaviour of TIDA cells. We propose that TIDA discharge mode may play a central role in tuning the amount of dopamine delivered to the pituitary and hence circulating prolactin concentrations in different reproductive states and pathological conditions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Stagkourakis S.,Karolinska Institutet | Kim H.,Karolinska Institutet | Lyons D.J.,Karolinska Institutet | Lyons D.J.,The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health | Broberger C.,Karolinska Institutet
Cell Reports | Year: 2016

How autoreceptors contribute to maintaining a stable output of rhythmically active neuronal circuits is poorly understood. Here, we examine this issue in a dopamine population, spontaneously oscillating hypothalamic rat (TIDA) neurons, that underlie neuroendocrine control of reproduction and neuroleptic side effects. Activation of dopamine receptors of the type 2 family (D2Rs) at the cell-body level slowed TIDA oscillations through two mechanisms. First, they prolonged the depolarizing phase through a combination of presynaptic increases in inhibition and postsynaptic hyperpolarization. Second, they extended the discharge phase through presynaptic attenuation of calcium currents and decreased synaptic inhibition. Dopamine reuptake blockade similarly reconfigured the oscillation, indicating that ambient somatodendritic transmitter concentration determines electrical behavior. In the absence of D2R feedback, however, discharge was abolished by depolarization block. These results indicate the existence of an ultra-short feedback loop whereby neuroendocrine dopamine neurons tune network behavior to echoes of their own activity, reflected in ambient somatodendritic dopamine, and also suggest a mechanism for antipsychotic side effects. © 2016 The Authors.


Belenguer A.,The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health | Holtrop G.,Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland | Duncan S.H.,The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health | Anderson S.E.,The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health | And 3 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology | Year: 2011

Lactate metabolism was studied in mixed bacterial communities using single-stage continuous flow fermentors inoculated with faecal slurries from four different volunteers and run for 6 days at pH 5.5 and 6.0, using carbohydrates, mainly starch\, as substrates. A continuous infusion of [U-13C]starch and L-[3-13C]lactate was performed on day 5 and a bolus injection of L-[3-13C]lactate plus DL-lactate on day 6. Short-chain fatty acids and lactate concentrations plus enrichments and numbers of lactate-producing and -utilizing bacteria on day 5 were measured. Faecal samples were also collected weekly over a 3-month period to inoculate 24-h batch culture incubation at pH 5.9 and 6.5 with carbohydrates alone or with 35 mmol L-1 lactate. In the fermentors, the potential lactate disposal rates were more than double the formation rates, and lactate concentrations usually remained below detection. Lactate formation was greater (Po0.05) at the lower pH, with a similar tendency for utilization. Up to 20% of butyrate production was derived from lactate. In batch cultures, lactate was also efficiently used at both pH values, especially at 6.5, although volunteer and temporal variability existed. Under healthy gut environmental conditions, bacterial lactate disposal seems to exceed production markedly. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.


PubMed | Slimming World and The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health
Type: | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2015

Over sixty percent of adults in the UK are now overweight/obese. Weight management on a national scale requires behavioural and lifestyle solutions that are accessible to large numbers of people. Evidence suggests commercial weight management programmes help people manage their weight but there is little research examining those that pay to attend such programmes rather than being referred by primary care. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of a UK commercial weight management programme in self-referred, fee-paying participants.Electronic weekly weight records were collated for self-referred, fee-paying participants of Slimming World groups joining between January 2010 and April 2012. This analysis reports weight outcomes in 1,356,105 adult, non-pregnant participants during their first 3 months attendance. Data were analysed by regression, ANOVA and for binomial outcomes, chi-squared tests using the R statistical program.Mean (SD) age was 42.3 (13.6) years, height 1.65 m (0.08) and start weight was 88.4 kg (18.8). Mean start BMI was 32.6 kg/m(2) (6.3 kg/m(2)) and 5 % of participants were men. Mean weight change of all participants was -3.9 kg (3.6), percent weight change -4.4 (3.8), and BMI change was -1.4 kg/m(2) (1.3). Mean attendance was 7.8 (4.3) sessions in their first 3 months. For participants attending at least 75 % of possible weekly sessions (n = 478,772), mean BMI change was -2.5 kg/m(2) (1.3), weight change -6.8 kg (3.7) and percent weight change -7.5 % (3.5). Weight loss was greater in men than women absolutely (-6.5 (5.3) kg vs -3.8 (3.4) kg) and as a percentage (5.7 % (4.4) vs 4.3 % (3.7)), respectively. All comparisons were significant (p < 0.001). Level of attendance and percent weight loss in the first week of attendance together accounted for 55 % of the variability in weight lost during the study period.A large-scale commercial lifestyle-based weight management programme had a significant impact on weight loss outcomes over 3 months. Higher levels of attendance led to levels of weight loss known to be associated with significant clinical benefits, which on this scale may have an impact on public health.


PubMed | The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: FEMS microbiology ecology | Year: 2011

Lactate metabolism was studied in mixed bacterial communities using single-stage continuous flow fermentors inoculated with faecal slurries from four different volunteers and run for 6 days at pH 5.5 and 6.0, using carbohydrates, mainly starch, as substrates. A continuous infusion of [U-(13) C]starch and l-[3-(13) C]lactate was performed on day 5 and a bolus injection of l-[3-(13) C]lactate plus dl-lactate on day 6. Short-chain fatty acids and lactate concentrations plus enrichments and numbers of lactate-producing and -utilizing bacteria on day 5 were measured. Faecal samples were also collected weekly over a 3-month period to inoculate 24-h batch culture incubation at pH 5.9 and 6.5 with carbohydrates alone or with 35 mmol L(-1) lactate. In the fermentors, the potential lactate disposal rates were more than double the formation rates, and lactate concentrations usually remained below detection. Lactate formation was greater (P<0.05) at the lower pH, with a similar tendency for utilization. Up to 20% of butyrate production was derived from lactate. In batch cultures, lactate was also efficiently used at both pH values, especially at 6.5, although volunteer and temporal variability existed. Under healthy gut environmental conditions, bacterial lactate disposal seems to exceed production markedly.

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