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Xenia, OH, United States

Dumpala P.R.,The Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Holdcraft R.W.,The Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Martis P.C.,The Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Laramore M.A.,The Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2016

Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Holdcraft R.W.,The Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Gazda L.S.,The Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Gazda L.S.,The Rogosin Institute | Circle L.,The Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | And 10 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2014

The transplantation of porcine islets of Langerhans to treat type 1 diabetes may provide a solution to the demand for insulin-producing cells. Porcine islets encapsulated in agarose-agarose macrobeads have been shown to function in nonimmunosuppressed xenogeneic models of both streptozotocin-induced and autoimmune type 1 diabetes. One advantage of agarose encapsulation is the ability to culture macrobeads for extended periods, permitting microbiological and functional assessment. Herein we describe optimization of the agarose matrix that results in improved islet function. Porcine islets (500 IEQs) from retired breeding sows were encapsulated in 1.5% SeaKem Gold (SG), 0.8% SG, or 0.8% Litex (Li) agarose, followed by an outer capsule of 5% SG agarose. Insulin production by the encapsulated islets exhibited an agarose-specific effect with 20% (0.8% SG) to 50% (0.8% Li) higher initial insulin production relative to 1.5% SG macrobeads. Insulin production was further increased by 40-50% from week 2 to week 12 in both agarose types at the 0.8% concentration, whereas islets encapsulated in 1.5% SG agarose increased insulin production by approximately 20%. Correspondingly, fewer macrobeads were required to restore normoglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female CD(SD) rats that received 0.8% Li (15 macrobeads) or 0.8% SG (17 macrobeads) as compared to 1.5% SG (19 macrobeads). Islet cell proliferation was also observed during the first 2 months postencapsulation, peaking at 4 weeks, where approximately 50% of islets contained proliferative cells, including β-cells, regardless of agarose type. These results illustrate the importance of optimizing the microenvironment of encapsulated islets to improve islet performance and advance the potential of islet xenotransplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

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