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Woodville, Australia

Jones T.E.,The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
Clinical Biochemistry

A case of altered consciousness in which ethanol ingestion was one of the differential diagnoses is described. Three separate blood samples were conveyed to the hospital biochemistry laboratory and each returned a positive value when assayed via an indirect, enzymatic method. The family strongly denied alcohol ingestion and hence, a few days later, the samples were conveyed to an external laboratory using a 'specific', chromatographic method. These samples were all reported as negative for ethanol. Alternative causes of altered consciousness were restricted by the false-positive ethanol laboratory results. © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Source

Awwad G.E.H.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | Tou S.I.H.,Royal Derby Hospital | Rieger N.A.,The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
Colorectal Disease

Aim A literature review was performed to elucidate whether long-course preoperative radiotherapy for patients with rectal cancer affects lymph node yield, and whether this influences prognosis. Method Cochrane Database, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Embase and CINAHL databases and reference lists from published journal articles published between 1 January 1990 and 30 June 2011 were searched. Studies examining lymph node yield and prognosis were selected for review. Results One thousand and twenty-nine articles were found, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria. None was a randomized controlled trial and all were cohort studies. Four studies showed that long-course preoperative radiotherapy reduced lymph node yield; however only one demonstrated a statistically significant survival benefit in patients with higher lymph node yields. Five-year survival was 48% in patients with fewer than and 69% in those with more than 11 lymph nodes identified in the operative specimen (P=0.04). Conclusion Whilst long-course preoperative radiotherapy appears to reduce lymph node yield in patients with rectal cancer, no causal relationship between lymph node yield and survival can be established in this group of patients. © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

Singh K.,The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
The American journal of emergency medicine

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is uncommon emergency condition usually precipitated by emotional or physical stress and is characterized by near-normal coronary arteries and regional wall motion abnormalities that extend beyond a single coronary vascular territory. Variants of TTC include classic apical ballooning syndrome and less commonly, mid, basal, and biventricular variants. Cardiac arrest is an uncommon complication of TTC. In the convalescence phase of TTC, prolonged QTc interval may cause cardiac arrest, but the reason for cardiac arrest in the acute phase when QTc interval is normal is unclear. We report 3 cases of mid ventricular TTC, with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest as the presenting feature. All 3 patients had normal QTc interval and were found to have normal coronary arteries on cardiac catheterization at presentation. Mid ventricular TTC was confirmed on contrast left ventriculography and echocardiography. Cardiac arrest myocarditis was ruled out by myocardial biopsy in 2 deceased patients and by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the one who survived. Source

Tou S.,The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)

Colectomy is a common procedures for both benign and malignant conditions. Increasingly more colectomy has been performed laparoscopically and there are several available instruments being used for this procedure. Of which three common dissecting instruments are: monopolar electrocautery scissors (MES), ultrasonic coagulating shears (UCS) and electrothermal bipolar vessel sealers (EBVS).  The aim is to assess the safety and effectiveness of these instruments. Studies were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Colorectal Cancer Group Trials Register.  Major journals were specifically hand searched.  All randomised controlled trials were included. All patients underwent elective laparoscopic or laparoscopic-assisted right, left or total colectomy or anterior resection for either benign or malignant conditions were included in the study. Two reviewers independently selected studies from the literature searches, assessed the methodological quality of the trials and extracted data. The three primary outcomes were: overall blood loss, complications and operating time. Six randomised controlled trials including 446 participants. Two trials compared three types of instruments (MES vs UCS vs EBVS). One trial compared MES and UCS. One trial compared UCS and EBVS. One trial compared 5 mm versus 10 mm EBVS. One trial compared the technique of laparoscopic staplers and clips versus EBVS in pedicle ligation during laparoscopic colectomy. The limitation of this review is the heterogeneity of the trials included. The measured outcomes were covered by one to three studies with small number of participants. With this in mind, there was significant less blood loss in UCS compared to MES. The operating time was significantly shorter with the use of EBVS than MES. No difference between UCS and EBVS apart from EBVS appeared to be handling better than UCS in one study. Haemostatic control was better in UCS and EBVS over MES. No definite conclusion on the cost difference between these three instrument but this would lie in the balance between the instrument cost and the operating time. The handling of 5 mm EBVS was better than 10 mm and its main advantage was trocar flexibility. Laparoscopic staplers/clips used for pedicle ligation in colectomy associated with more failure in vessel ligation and cost more when compared to EBVS. The limitations of this review is the small number of trials and heterogeneity of the studies included. With the current evidence it is not possible to demonstrate which is the best instrument in laparoscopic colectomy. Hopefully more data would follow and subsequent updates of this review could become more informative. Source

Black R.,The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
International journal of rheumatic diseases

The exact diagnostic role of temporal artery ultrasound (TAU) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a positive halo sign in patients undergoing TAU in a clinical setting, and to perform a review of existing evidence. Patients who had undergone TAU at a single centre in Australia were included in the study. The presence or absence of a halo sign and whether it was unilateral or bilateral was determined retrospectively from radiology reports. Pathology results were used to determine which patients underwent a temporal artery biopsy and if the biopsy was positive or negative. A case note review was performed to determine presenting clinical features and if a clinical diagnosis of giant cell arteritis was made. The sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios of TAU compared to both biopsy and clinical diagnosis were calculated. Fifty patients were identified as having had a TAU (28% male, mean age 69). When compared to biopsy-proven cases, the sensitivity of a halo sign was 40%, specificity 81%, positive likelihood ratio 2.1 and negative likelihood ratio 0.7. When compared to clinical diagnosis, the sensitivity was 42%, specificity 94%, positive likelihood ratio 7.1 and negative likelihood 0.6. Sensitivity and specificity results were comparable to the literature. A halo sign may preclude the need for biopsy in cases of high clinical suspicion and contraindications to surgery. Biopsy remains necessary in most cases, irrespective of whether a halo sign is present. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

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