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Desvars A.,Umea University | Furberg M.,Umea University | Hjertqvist M.,The Public Health Agency of Sweden | Vidman L.,Umea University | And 3 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984–2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984–1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999–2012 (p<0.001). The incidence of tularemia was higher than expected in the boreal and alpine ecologic regions (p<0.001), and incidence was positively correlated with the presence of lakes and rivers (p<0.001). These results provide a comprehensive epidemiologic description of tularemia in Sweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved. Source


Andersen F.H.,MORE Health | Andersen F.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Flaatten H.,University of Bergen | Klepstad P.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Intensive Care | Year: 2015

Background: Comparison of survival and quality of life in a mixed ICU population of patients 80 years of age or older with a matched segment of the general population. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed survival of ICU patients ≥80 years admitted to the Haukeland University Hospital in 2000–2012. We prospectively used the EuroQol-5D to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between survivors at follow-up and an age- and gender-matched general population. Follow-up was 1–13.8 years. Results: The included 395 patients (mean age 83.8 years, 61.0 % males) showed an overall survival of 75.9 (ICU), 59.5 (hospital), and 42.0 % 1 year after the ICU. High ICU mortality was predicted by age, mechanical ventilator support, SAPS II, maximum SOFA, and multitrauma with head injury. High hospital mortality was predicted by an unplanned surgical admission. One-year mortality was predicted by respiratory failure and isolated head injury. We found no differences in HRQOL at follow-up between survivors (n = 58) and control subjects (n = 179) or between admission categories. Of the ICU non-survivors, 63.2 % died within 2 days after ICU admission (n = 60), and 68.3 % of these had life-sustaining treatment (LST) limitations. LST limitations were applied for 71.3 % (n = 114) of the hospital non-survivors (ICU 70.5 % (n = 67); post-ICU 72.3 % (n = 47)). Conclusions: Overall 1-year survival was 42.0 %. Survival rates beyond that were comparable to those of the general octogenarian population. Among survivors at follow-up, HRQOL was comparable to that of the age- and sex-matched general population. Patients admitted for planned surgery had better short- and long-term survival rates than those admitted for medical reasons or unplanned surgery for 3 years after ICU admittance. The majority of the ICU non-survivors died within 2 days, and most of these had LST limitation decisions. © 2015, Andersen et al. Source


Bremberg S.,The Public Health Agency of Sweden | Bremberg S.,Karolinska Institutet
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) | Year: 2015

UNLABELLED: Mental health problems increased in adolescents and young adults in Europe between 1950 and 1990, and the cause is largely unknown. Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden form a relatively homogenous group of countries with favourable conditions for children. Our review examined the time trends for mental health problems in these countries between 1990 and 2010.CONCLUSION: In general, there were only small changes in mental health problems in the countries studied. However, we did note a marked rising trend in mental health problems among adolescents in Sweden, which also has more issues with school achievement and unemployment rates. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Carlsson R.M.,The Public Health Agency of Sweden | Carlsson R.M.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | von Segebaden K.,The Public Health Agency of Sweden | Bergstrom J.,The Public Health Agency of Sweden | And 3 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2015

In Sweden, pertussis was excluded from the national vaccination programme in 1979 until acellular vaccination was introduced in a highly endemic setting in 1996. The general incidence dropped 10-fold within a decade, less in infants. Infant pertussis reached 40–45 cases per 100,000 in 2008 to 2012; few of these cases were older than five months. We present an observational 15-year study on the severity of infant pertussis based on 1,443 laboratory-confirmed cases prospectively identified from 1998 to 2012 in the national mandatory reporting system and followed up by telephone contact. Analyses were made in relation to age at onset of symptoms and vaccination history. Pertussis decreased in non-vaccinated infants (2003 to 2012, p < 0.001), indicating herd immunity, both in those too young to be vaccinated and those older than three months. The hospitalisation rates also decreased (last five-year period vs the previous five-year periods, p <0.001), but 70% of all cases in under three month-old infants and 99% of cases with apnoea due to pertussis were admitted to hospital in 1998 to 2012. Median duration of hospitalisation was seven days for unvaccinated vs four days for vaccinated infants aged 3–5 months. Nine unvaccinated infants died during the study period. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved. Source


Gudo E.S.,National Institute of Health | Pinto G.,National Institute of Health | Vene S.,The Public Health Agency of Sweden | Mandlaze A.,National Institute of Health | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: In the last two decades, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has rapidly expanded to several geographical areas, causing frequent outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, South America, and Europe. Therefore, the disease remains heavily neglected in Mozambique, and no recent study has been conducted. Methods: Between January and September 2013, acute febrile patients with no other evident cause of fever and attending a health center in a suburban area of Maputo city, Mozambique, were consecutively invited to participate. Paired acute and convalescent serum samples were requested from each participant. Convalescent samples were initially screened for anti-CHIKV IgG using a commercial indirect immunofluorescence test, and if positive, the corresponding acute sample was screened using the same test. Results: Four hundred patients were enrolled. The median age of study participants was 26 years (IQR: 21–33 years) and 57.5% (224/391) were female. Paired blood samples were obtained from 209 patients, of which 26.4% (55/208) were presented anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies in the convalescent sample. Seroconversion or a four-fold titer rise was confirmed in 9 (4.3%) patients. Conclusion: The results of this study strongly suggest that CHIKV is circulating in southern Mozambique. We recommend that CHIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness in Mozambique and that systematic surveillance for CHIKV should be implemented. © 2015 Gudo et al. Source

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