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Hirata Y.,University of Tokyo | di Bernardo M.,University of Bristol | di Bernardo M.,University of Naples Federico II | Bruchovsky N.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | Aihara K.,University of Tokyo
Chaos | Year: 2010

We propose a method for achieving an optimal protocol of intermittent androgen suppression for the treatment of prostate cancer. Since the model that reproduces the dynamical behavior of the surrogate tumor marker, prostate specific antigen, is piecewise linear, we can obtain an analytical solution for the model. Based on this, we derive conditions for either stopping or delaying recurrent disease. The solution also provides a design principle for the most favorable schedule of treatment that minimizes the rate of expansion of the malignant cell population. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Hirata Y.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Hirata Y.,University of Tokyo | Bruchovsky N.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | Aihara K.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Aihara K.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2010

We propose a mathematical model that quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level under intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) for prostate cancer. Taking into account the biological knowledge that there are reversible and irreversible changes in a malignant cell, we constructed a piecewise-linear dynamical model where the testosterone dynamics are modelled with rapid shifts between two levels, namely the normal and castrate concentrations of the male hormone. The validity of the model was supported by patient data obtained from a clinical trial of IAS. It accurately reproduced the kinetics of the therapeutic reduction of PSA and predicted the future nadir level correctly. The coexistence of reversible and irreversible changes within the malignant cell provided the best explanation of early progression to androgen independence. Finally, since the model identified patients for whom IAS was effective, it potentially offers a novel approach to individualized therapy requiring the input of time sequence values of PSA only. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Prior N.H.,University of British Columbia | Yap K.N.,University of British Columbia | Mainwaring M.C.,Macquarie University | Adomat H.H.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | And 7 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2016

The zebra finch is a common model organism in neuroscience, endocrinology, and ethology. Zebra finches are generally considered opportunistic breeders, but the extent of their opportunism depends on the predictability of their habitat. This plasticity in the timing of breeding raises the question of how domestication, a process that increases environmental predictability, has affected their reproductive physiology. Here, we compared circulating steroid levels in various "strains" of zebra finches. In Study 1, using radioimmunoassay, we examined circulating testosterone levels in several strains of zebra finches (males and females). Subjects were wild or captive (Captive Wild-Caught, Wild-Derived, or Domesticated). In Study 2, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we examined circulating sex steroid profiles in wild and domesticated zebra finches (males and females). In Study 1, circulating testosterone levels in males differed across strains. In Study 2, six steroids were detectable in plasma from wild zebra finches (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, androsterone, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT)). Only pregnenolone and progesterone levels changed across reproductive states in wild finches. Compared to wild zebra finches, domesticated zebra finches had elevated levels of circulating pregnenolone, progesterone, DHEA, testosterone, androstenedione, and androsterone. These data suggest that domestication has profoundly altered the endocrinology of this common model organism. These results have implications for interpreting studies of domesticated zebra finches, as well as studies of other domesticated species. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Kozlowski P.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | Kozlowski P.,University of British Columbia | Chang S.D.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | Chang S.D.,University of British Columbia | And 7 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2010

The purpose of this work was to compare diagnostic accuracy of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) and their combination in diagnosing prostate cancer. Twenty-five patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent MRI, prior to transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies. MRI data were correlated to biopsy results. Logistic regression models were constructed for the DTI parameters, DCE MRI parameters, and their combination. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) were compared between the models. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity and specificity values were respectively 81% (74-87%) and 85% (79-90%) for DTI and 63% (55-70%) and 90% (85-94%) for DCE. The combination "DTI or DCE MRI" had 100% (97-100%) sensitivity and 77% (69-83%) specificity, while "DTI and DCE MRI" had 44% (37-52%) sensitivity and 98% (94-100%) specificity. The AUC for DTI+DCE parameters was significantly higher than that for either DTI (0.96 vs. 0.92, P=.0143) or DCE MRI parameters (0.96 vs. 0.87, P=.00187) alone. In conclusion, the combination of DTI and DCE MRI has significantly better accuracy in prostate cancer diagnosis than either technique alone. © 2010.


PubMed | The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy | Year: 2010

The aim of this project was to demonstrate that an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can replicate in a tissue- and tumor-specific fashion through both transcriptional (prostate-specific promoter, ARR(2)PB) and translational (5-untranslated regions (5UTRs) of rFGF-2) regulation of an essential viral gene, ICP27. We generated two recombinant viruses, ARR(2)PB-ICP27 (A27) and ARR(2)PB-5UTR-ICP27 (AU27) and tested their efficacy and toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. The ARR(2)PB promoter caused overexpression of ICP27 gene in the presence of activated androgen receptors (ARs) and increased viral replication in prostate cells. However, this transcriptional upregulation was effectively constrained by the 5UTR-mediated translational regulation. Mice bearing human prostate LNCaP tumors, treated with a single intravenous injection of 5 x 10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu) of AU27 virus exhibited a >85% reduction in tumor size at day 28 after viral injection. Although active viral replication was readily evident in the tumors, no viral DNA was detectable in normal organs as measured by real-time PCR analyses. In conclusion, a transcriptional and translational dual-regulated (TTDR) viral essential gene expression can increase both viral lytic activity and tumor specificity, and this provides a basis for the development of a novel tumor-specific oncolytic virus for systemic treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancers.


PubMed | The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Prostate | Year: 2010

Docetaxel is one of the few chemotherapeutic drugs that are considered highly effective when used to treat prostate cancer patients that have relapsed and/or metastatic disease, it is therefore reasonable to expect further improvements in treatment outcomes when it is combined with other therapeutic agents active in prostate cancer. This study assesses the combination of well tolerated and orally bioavailable formulations of ginsenoside Rh2 or its aglycone aPPD with docetaxel.The in vitro activity of Rh2, aPPD, and docetaxel was determined in four prostate cancer cell lines: PC-3, LNCaP, DU145, and C4-2. Combinations of Rh2 or aPPD with docetaxel were assessed using the constant ratio combination design. Combination Indices (CI) and Dose Reduction Indices (DRI) were subsequently estimated using Calcusyn. In vivo efficacy studies and Immunohistochemical analyses (PC-3 model) were also evaluated.In PC-3, DU145 and C4-2 prostate cancer cells combinations of Rh2 or aPPD with docetaxel were predominantly additive or synergistic. Combinations of Rh2 + docetaxel and aPPD + docetaxel caused established PC-3 tumors to regress from their initial size by 15% and 27%, respectively. Tumor cell proliferation rate (measured by Ki-67 positive cells) was significantly lower for combinations of Rh2 + docetaxel and aPPD + docetaxel, compared to animals treated with docetaxel alone.Rh2 and aPPD can be combined with docetaxel to yield additive or synergistic activity in vitro and in vivo. Pending further assessment of toxicity and pharmacodynamic behavior, this study supports testing of combinations of ginsenoside Rh2 or its aglycone aPPD with docetaxel in a clinical setting.


PubMed | University of British Columbia, Macquarie University, Deakin University and The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology | Year: 2016

Here, we studied the life-long monogamous zebra finch, to examine the relationship between circulating sex steroid profiles and pair-maintenance behavior in pairs of wild-caught zebra finches (paired in the laboratory for >1 month). We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine a total of eight androgens and progestins [pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol, pregnan-3,17-diol-20-one, androsterone, androstanediol, and testosterone]. In the plasma, only pregnenolone, progesterone, DHEA, and testosterone were above the limit of quantification. Sex steroid profiles were similar between males and females, with only circulating progesterone levels significantly different between the sexes (female > male). Circulating pregnenolone levels were high in both sexes, suggesting that pregnenolone might serve as a circulating prohormone for local steroid synthesis in zebra finches. Furthermore, circulating testosterone levels were extremely low in both sexes. Additionally, we found no correlations between circulating steroid levels and pair-maintenance behavior. Taken together, our data raise several interesting questions about the neuroendocrinology of zebra finches.


PubMed | The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Magnetic resonance imaging | Year: 2010

The purpose of this work was to compare diagnostic accuracy of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) and their combination in diagnosing prostate cancer. Twenty-five patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent MRI, prior to transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies. MRI data were correlated to biopsy results. Logistic regression models were constructed for the DTI parameters, DCE MRI parameters, and their combination. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) were compared between the models. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity and specificity values were respectively 81% (74-87%) and 85% (79-90%) for DTI and 63% (55-70%) and 90% (85-94%) for DCE. The combination DTI or DCE MRI had 100% (97-100%) sensitivity and 77% (69-83%) specificity, while DTI and DCE MRI had 44% (37-52%) sensitivity and 98% (94-100%) specificity. The AUC for DTI+DCE parameters was significantly higher than that for either DTI (0.96 vs. 0.92, P=.0143) or DCE MRI parameters (0.96 vs. 0.87, P=.00187) alone. In conclusion, the combination of DTI and DCE MRI has significantly better accuracy in prostate cancer diagnosis than either technique alone.


PubMed | The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anti-cancer drugs | Year: 2012

This study focuses on determining the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and efficacy of the ginsenoside aglycone protopanaxadiol (aPPD) administered as a single agent in a novel oral dosage formulation. To obtain these data and to characterize the stability of aPPD, appropriate analytical assay development was carried out. The solubility and stability of aPPD were determined, and the compound was formulated for oral gavage. aPPD levels in blood and tissues following oral administration to nu/nu nude mice were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The efficacy of aPPD was determined upon oral administration to nu/nu nude mice bearing PC-3 human prostate cancer xenograft tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues was performed to establish apoptotic indices and Ki-67 expression as markers of proliferation. The maximum solubility of aPPD in ethanol was 68.4 mg/ml. aPPD administered at a dose of 70 mg/kg yielded a T(max) of approximately 40 min and a C(max) value of 3.9 1.4 g/ml, and no toxicity was observed. aPPD accumulated largely in the stomach and small intestine and was also present in the brain. This dose engendered a significant delay in PC-3 tumor growth, an increase in apoptotic index, and a decrease in Ki-67 levels. We have shown that aPPD is a stable compound that can be formulated for oral gavage. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrate the ability of this compound to be absorbed after oral administration. Future studies will assess the activity and pharmacokinetics of aPPD when administered in combination with standard chemotherapy.


PubMed | University of British Columbia, Macquarie University, Deakin University and The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital
Type: | Journal: General and comparative endocrinology | Year: 2016

The zebra finch is a common model organism in neuroscience, endocrinology, and ethology. Zebra finches are generally considered opportunistic breeders, but the extent of their opportunism depends on the predictability of their habitat. This plasticity in the timing of breeding raises the question of how domestication, a process that increases environmental predictability, has affected their reproductive physiology. Here, we compared circulating steroid levels in various strains of zebra finches. In Study 1, using radioimmunoassay, we examined circulating testosterone levels in several strains of zebra finches (males and females). Subjects were wild or captive (Captive Wild-Caught, Wild-Derived, or Domesticated). In Study 2, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we examined circulating sex steroid profiles in wild and domesticated zebra finches (males and females). In Study 1, circulating testosterone levels in males differed across strains. In Study 2, six steroids were detectable in plasma from wild zebra finches (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, androsterone, and 5-dihydrotestosterone (5-DHT)). Only pregnenolone and progesterone levels changed across reproductive states in wild finches. Compared to wild zebra finches, domesticated zebra finches had elevated levels of circulating pregnenolone, progesterone, DHEA, testosterone, androstenedione, and androsterone. These data suggest that domestication has profoundly altered the endocrinology of this common model organism. These results have implications for interpreting studies of domesticated zebra finches, as well as studies of other domesticated species.

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