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Hirata Y.,University of Tokyo | di Bernardo M.,University of Bristol | di Bernardo M.,University of Naples Federico II | Bruchovsky N.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | Aihara K.,University of Tokyo
Chaos | Year: 2010

We propose a method for achieving an optimal protocol of intermittent androgen suppression for the treatment of prostate cancer. Since the model that reproduces the dynamical behavior of the surrogate tumor marker, prostate specific antigen, is piecewise linear, we can obtain an analytical solution for the model. Based on this, we derive conditions for either stopping or delaying recurrent disease. The solution also provides a design principle for the most favorable schedule of treatment that minimizes the rate of expansion of the malignant cell population. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. Source


Hirata Y.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Hirata Y.,University of Tokyo | Bruchovsky N.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | Aihara K.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Aihara K.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2010

We propose a mathematical model that quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level under intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) for prostate cancer. Taking into account the biological knowledge that there are reversible and irreversible changes in a malignant cell, we constructed a piecewise-linear dynamical model where the testosterone dynamics are modelled with rapid shifts between two levels, namely the normal and castrate concentrations of the male hormone. The validity of the model was supported by patient data obtained from a clinical trial of IAS. It accurately reproduced the kinetics of the therapeutic reduction of PSA and predicted the future nadir level correctly. The coexistence of reversible and irreversible changes within the malignant cell provided the best explanation of early progression to androgen independence. Finally, since the model identified patients for whom IAS was effective, it potentially offers a novel approach to individualized therapy requiring the input of time sequence values of PSA only. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Prior N.H.,University of British Columbia | Prior N.H.,Jean Monnet University | Yap K.N.,University of British Columbia | Adomat H.H.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology | Year: 2016

Here, we studied the life-long monogamous zebra finch, to examine the relationship between circulating sex steroid profiles and pair-maintenance behavior in pairs of wild-caught zebra finches (paired in the laboratory for >1 month). We used liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to examine a total of eight androgens and progestins [pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol, pregnan-3,17-diol-20-one, androsterone, androstanediol, and testosterone]. In the plasma, only pregnenolone, progesterone, DHEA, and testosterone were above the limit of quantification. Sex steroid profiles were similar between males and females, with only circulating progesterone levels significantly different between the sexes (female > male). Circulating pregnenolone levels were high in both sexes, suggesting that pregnenolone might serve as a circulating prohormone for local steroid synthesis in zebra finches. Furthermore, circulating testosterone levels were extremely low in both sexes. Additionally, we found no correlations between circulating steroid levels and pair-maintenance behavior. Taken together, our data raise several interesting questions about the neuroendocrinology of zebra finches. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Prior N.H.,University of British Columbia | Yap K.N.,University of British Columbia | Mainwaring M.C.,Macquarie University | Adomat H.H.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | And 7 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2016

The zebra finch is a common model organism in neuroscience, endocrinology, and ethology. Zebra finches are generally considered opportunistic breeders, but the extent of their opportunism depends on the predictability of their habitat. This plasticity in the timing of breeding raises the question of how domestication, a process that increases environmental predictability, has affected their reproductive physiology. Here, we compared circulating steroid levels in various "strains" of zebra finches. In Study 1, using radioimmunoassay, we examined circulating testosterone levels in several strains of zebra finches (males and females). Subjects were wild or captive (Captive Wild-Caught, Wild-Derived, or Domesticated). In Study 2, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we examined circulating sex steroid profiles in wild and domesticated zebra finches (males and females). In Study 1, circulating testosterone levels in males differed across strains. In Study 2, six steroids were detectable in plasma from wild zebra finches (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, androsterone, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT)). Only pregnenolone and progesterone levels changed across reproductive states in wild finches. Compared to wild zebra finches, domesticated zebra finches had elevated levels of circulating pregnenolone, progesterone, DHEA, testosterone, androstenedione, and androsterone. These data suggest that domestication has profoundly altered the endocrinology of this common model organism. These results have implications for interpreting studies of domesticated zebra finches, as well as studies of other domesticated species. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source


Kozlowski P.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | Kozlowski P.,University of British Columbia | Chang S.D.,The Prostate Center at Vancouver General Hospital | Chang S.D.,University of British Columbia | And 7 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2010

The purpose of this work was to compare diagnostic accuracy of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) and their combination in diagnosing prostate cancer. Twenty-five patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent MRI, prior to transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies. MRI data were correlated to biopsy results. Logistic regression models were constructed for the DTI parameters, DCE MRI parameters, and their combination. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) were compared between the models. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity and specificity values were respectively 81% (74-87%) and 85% (79-90%) for DTI and 63% (55-70%) and 90% (85-94%) for DCE. The combination "DTI or DCE MRI" had 100% (97-100%) sensitivity and 77% (69-83%) specificity, while "DTI and DCE MRI" had 44% (37-52%) sensitivity and 98% (94-100%) specificity. The AUC for DTI+DCE parameters was significantly higher than that for either DTI (0.96 vs. 0.92, P=.0143) or DCE MRI parameters (0.96 vs. 0.87, P=.00187) alone. In conclusion, the combination of DTI and DCE MRI has significantly better accuracy in prostate cancer diagnosis than either technique alone. © 2010. Source

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