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Surrey, United Kingdom

Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Intramural | Award Amount: 67.82K | Year: 2016

In a CIDLID grant which ended in May 2015, we have demonstrated that addition of new generation adjuvant in existing vaccine formulation, even with low antigen concentration, improved both CD4 and CD8 responses and the vaccinated cattle were fully protected upon live virus challenge. We are interested to investigate that with full commercial dose of antigen pay load and with supplementation of the new adjuvant whether the duration of immunity could be increased at least upto 6 months.The animal experiemnt will be conducted at the isolation facility of the collaborator (Vaccine producer), Indian Immunologicals

Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Intramural | Award Amount: 78.00K | Year: 2016

This research aims to define the viral attributes that influence novel H7N9 avian influenza virus to transmit from chickens to human and cause severe diseases and mortality in humans. This novel H7N9 virus contained internal gene cassette from H9N2 viruses enzootic in poultry. The proposed research will investigate: - how internal genes of H7N9 derived from H9N2 virus impact on virus virulence and transmission in avian and mammalian species; - what are the molecular signatures in the internal gene segments of H7N9 virus that make virus more virulent in humans; - what would be the potential consequences to poultry if H7N9 further reassort with currently prevalent novel H9N2 genotypes carrying internal genes of high pathogenicity H7N3 and H5N1 viruses; - what are the consequences on poultry for virus spill over from human to poultry (are the acquired adaptive genetic changes maintained?) These questions will be address by achieving following specific objectives: 1. To defining the influence of internal gene segments of H7N9 virus derived from H9N2 (Beijing-like lineage) on pathogenicity and transmission in avian and mammalian hosts. 2. To identify the molecular signatures that make H7N9 viruses more transmissible and virulent in humans 3. To examine the potential of H7N9 virus reasserting with contemporary circulating novel H9N2 genotypes containing internal genes of HPAI H7N3 and H5N1 viruses 4. To examine the susceptibility of birds to mammalian adapted H7N9

The present invention provides an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) spike protein (S protein) which is based on an S protein from an IBV strain with restricted tissue tropism, but which comprises the sequence XBBXBX in the part of the S2 protein corresponding to residues 686 to 691 of the sequence given as SEQ ID No. 2, where B is a basic residue and X is any amino acid; and which comprises at least one of the following amino acid substitutions with reference to the position numbering of SEQ ID NO:2: Leucine (L) to Phenylalanine (F) at position 578 Asparagine (N) to Serine (S) at position 617 Asparagine (N) to Serine (S) at position 826 Leucine (L) to Phenylalanine (F) at position 857 and Isoleucine (I) to Valine (V) at position 1000 such that an IBV virus comprising the S protein has extended tissue tropism. The present invention also provides a virus comprising such an S protein.

The Pirbright Institute | Date: 2012-06-26

The present invention provides a foot-and-mouth diseases virus (FMDV) VP1 capsid protein which comprises an entity of interest (EOI). The EOI sequence may, for example, be an epitope tag, an immunomodulatory molecule or a target molecule. The present invention also provides an FMDV vaccine which comprises such a VP1 capsid protein and its use to prevent FMD.

Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 414.56K | Year: 2016

Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are currently the most important biological vectors of livestock arboviruses in Europe. Outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) continue to have a significant economic impact through clinical disease and the imposition of animal trade movement restrictions. At least three Culicoides-borne viruses recently identified in Europe possess an unknown origin, hence future outbreaks involving described or undescribed strains or species of Culicoides-borne viruses have a high potential of occurring in the future. These viruses could include further incursions of known arboviruses (including additional species of Culicoides-borne arboviruses such as African horse sickness or Epizootic Haemorhagic Disease Virus) or as yet undescribed species with an unknown pathogenicity to livestock or humans. In this project we will dissect Culicoides vector-arbovirus relationships across multiple ecosystems and species and in unprecedented detail to provide data useful for both defining risk of incursion and subsequent spread. Using newly developed methods to blood-feed Culicoides viruses of epidemiological interest, we will assess barriers associated with vector competence that may underlie restrictions to arbovirus movement in Europe. The fundamental genetic drivers determining vector competence in Culicoides will then be explored using genomic techniques to identify panels of candidate genes influencing this process. Following identification, comparative genomics will identify species specific differences in panels which will be examined across ecosystems in Northern and Southern Europe. In addition, we will also examine the virome of European Culicoides of veterinary importance as a potential influence on vector competence and as a means of understanding how viral diversity within populations can be used to infer risk of outbreak. Using metagenomic analyses we will examine viromes from Culicoides populations across the participating countries that have already been the subject of targeted sampling for surveillance purposes. We expect this to reveal for the first time the true diversity of viruses present within Culicoides and to begin to untangle their role in the epidemiology of pathogenic virus transmission, opening a new field of research for animal virus vectors.

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