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Tanner C.M.,The Parkinsons Institute
Movement Disorders | Year: 2010

Parkinson's disease (PD) is likely due to the combined effects of environment and genes in most cases. Environmental factors inversely associated with PD (or, putative protective factors) include cigarette smoking, use of coffee/caffeine, higher uric acid levels, and anti-inflammatory drug use. Less well-established inverse associations with PD include higher cholesterol levels, statin use, higher dietary vitamin B6, and night shift work. Putative risk factors are pesticide exposure, head trauma, certain occupations, and milk consumption. The pathogenesis of PD may begin decades before motor symptoms. PD may have shared determinants with other neurodegenerative disorders involving abnormal protein aggregation. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society. Source

Jenner P.,Kings College London | Langston J.W.,The Parkinsons Institute
Movement Disorders | Year: 2011

The ADAGIO study demonstrated a symptomatic benefit for rasagiline in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and suggested a disease-modifying effect. Evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of PD and that this may be the site of effect for rasagiline. In this systematic review, evidence for the role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD are reviewed in light of other proposed mechanisms of neuronal degeneration and the actions of rasagiline and its component parts, namely propargylamine and the metabolite, aminoindan. Evidence for the role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis and treatment of PD are reviewed in light of other proposed mechanisms of neuronal degeneration and clinical actions of rasagiline. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) located in the outer mitochondrial membrane controls dopamine metabolism in early PD, and this is the likely location for the symptomatic action of rasagiline. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial impairment contributes to dopaminergic neuronal loss in PD, either directly or through other mechanisms such as oxidative stress or protein misfolding. Further rasagiline affects numerous mitochondrial mechanisms that prevent apoptotic cell death including prevention of opening of the mitochondrial transition pore, decreased release of cytochrome C, alterations in pro-antiapoptotic genes and proteins, and the nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Thus, the functional neuroprotective actions of rasagiline may not be dependent on MAO-B inhibition, but rather may involve actions of the propargylamine moiety and the aminoindan metabolite. An accumulating body of literature indicates a mitochondrial site of action for rasagiline and highlights the neuroprotective action of the drug, providing strong biological plausibility for disease-modifying effects of the drug such as those observed in ADAGIO. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society. Source

Pahwa R.,University of Kansas Medical Center | Tanner C.M.,The Parkinsons Institute | Tanner C.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Hauser R.A.,University of South Florida | And 8 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2015

ADS-5102 is a long-acting, extended-release capsule formulation of amantadine HCl administered once daily at bedtime. This study investigated the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of ADS-5102 in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 83 PD patients with troublesome dyskinesia assigned to placebo or one of three doses of ADS-5102 (260 mg, 340 mg, 420 mg) administered daily at bedtime for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy analysis compared change from baseline to week 8 in Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) total score for 340 mg ADS-5102 versus placebo. Secondary outcome measures included change in UDysRS for 260 mg, 420 mg, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), patient diary, Clinician's Global Impression of Change, and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). ADS-5102 340 mg significantly reduced dyskinesia versus placebo (27% reduction in UDysRS, P=0.005). In addition, ADS-5102 significantly increased ON time without troublesome dyskinesia, as assessed by PD patient diaries, at 260 mg (P=0.004), 340 mg (P=0.008) and 420 mg (P=0.018). Adverse events (AEs) were reported for 82%, 80%, 95%, and 90% of patients in the placebo, 260-mg, 340-mg, and 420-mg groups, respectively. Constipation, hallucinations, dizziness, and dry mouth were the most frequent AEs. Study withdrawal rates were 9%, 15%, 14%, and 40% for the placebo, 260-mg, 340-mg, and 420-mg groups, respectively. All study withdrawals in the active treatment groups were attributable to AEs. ADS-5102 was generally well tolerated and resulted in significant and dose-dependent improvements in dyskinesia in PD patients. © 2015 Adamas Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Source

Vangipuram M.,The Parkinsons Institute
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2013

Tissues and cell lines derived from an individual with disease are ideal sources to study disease-related cellular phenotypes. Patient-derived fibroblasts in this protocol have been successfully used in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells to model disease(1). Early passages of these fibroblasts can also be used for cell-based functional assays to study specific disease pathways, mechanisms(2) and subsequent drug screening approaches. The advantage of the presented protocol over enzymatic procedures are 1) the reproducibility of the technique from small amounts of tissue derived from older patients, e.g. patients affected with Parkinson's disease, 2) the technically simple approach over more challenging methodologies using enzymatic treatments, and 3) the time consideration: this protocol takes 15-20 min and can be performed immediately after biopsy arrival. Enzymatic treatments can take up to 4 hr and have the problems of overdigestion, reduction of cell viability and subsequent attachment of cells when not handled properly. This protocol describes the dissection and preparation of a 4-mm human skin biopsy for derivation of a fibroblast culture and has a very high success rate which is important when dealing with patient-derived tissue samples. In this culture, keratinocytes migrate out of the biopsy tissue within the first week after preparation. Fibroblasts appear 7-10 days after the first outgrowth of keratinocytes. DMEM high glucose media supplemented with 20% FBS favors the growth of fibroblasts over keratinocytes and fibroblasts will overgrow the keratinocytes. After 2 passages keratinocytes have been diluted out resulting in relatively homogenous fibroblast cultures which expresses the fibroblast marker SERPINH1 (HSP-47). Using this approach, 15-20 million fibroblasts can be derived in 4-8 weeks for cell banking. The skin dissection takes about 15-20 min, cells are then monitored once a day under the microscope, and media is changed every 2-3 days after attachment and outgrowth of cells. Source

The invention provides dosage forms and methods utilizing nicotine to treat symptoms of a neurologic disorder. In some embodiments, the invention provides compositions for treatment of gait and balance problems associated with Parkinsons Disease.

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