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Frederiksberg, Denmark

Alkjaer T.,Copenhagen University | Henriksen M.,The Parker Institute | Simonsen E.B.,Copenhagen University
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2011

Purpose: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) causes changes in the walking pattern. ACL deficient subjects classified as copers and non-copers have been observed to adopt different post-injury walking patterns. How these different patterns affect the knee compression and shear forces is unresolved. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate how different walking patterns observed between copers, non-copers, and controls affect the knee compression and shear forces during walking. Methods: Three-dimensional gait analyses were performed in copers (n = 9), non-copers (n = 10), and control subjects (n =19). The net knee joint moment, knee joint reaction forces, and the sagittal knee joint angle were input parameters to a biomechanical model that assessed the knee compression and shear forces. Results: The results showed that the non-copers walked with significantly reduced knee compression and shear forces than the controls. The overall knee compression force pattern was similar between the copers and controls, although this variable was significantly increased at heel strike in the copers compared to both non-copers and controls. The peak shear force was significantly dependent on the peak knee extensor moment. This covariance was significantly different between groups meaning that at a given knee extensor moment the shear force was significantly reduced in the copers compared to controls. Conclusion: The different knee joint loading patterns observed between non-copers and copers reflected the different walking strategies adopted by these groups, which may have implications for the knee joint stability. The strategy adopted by the copers may resemble an effective way to stabilize the knee joint during walking after an ACL rupture and that the knee kinematics may play a key role for this strategy. It is clinically relevant to investigate if gait retraining would enable non-copers to walk as copers and thereby improve their knee joint stability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Gudbergsen H.,The Parker Institute
Danish medical journal | Year: 2013

This thesis examines two main hypotheses: 1. Obese knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients can achieve symptomatic improvements following diet intervention regardless of their level of structural damage and overall joint malfunctioning: 2. Rapid weight-loss in obese patients with KOA will lead to improvements in KOA related pathology that can be assessed and evaluated by MRI. Data for the studies were obtained from obese KOA patients who were recruited for a 16 week diet intervention trial, the CAROT-trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identification no.: NCT00655941). Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 50 years, BMI ≥ 30 kg/square metro plus symptomatic and verified KOA. Patients underwent a 16 weeks dietary programme with formula products and counselling. Baseline and week 16 assessments included clinical examinations, MRI and CR of the most symptomatic knee, muscle strength tests, gait analyses, blood samples and collection of patient-reported outcomes with a variety of generic and specific health status questionnaires. MRI scans were graded by the BLOKS and CR was analysed by measuring the mJSW and grading the knee as described by KL. 388 possible subjects were pre-screened, 192 were enrolled. Following the 16 weeks diet intervention 175 patients remained in the study. 187 (97%) MRI scans were completed at baseline, 172 (98 %) MRI scans obtained at week 16 and this left the study with 169 (97%) patients with complete MRI datasets at week 16. No statistical significant differences were detected between baseline characteristics of all the initially included patients (n = 192) and the 169 patients included in the per protocol analyses performed in study III (p < 0.05). In order to apply BLOKS, an extensive MRI scoring system, in study II and III we examined the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the various BLOKS items in study I. Results showed that our assessment team performed as described in the original study defining BLOKS and that the patients in the CAROT-trial were graded as expected. In study II we investigated the impact of diet intervention on KOA symptoms whatever the patient's individual level of joint damage and guidelines suggesting that diet intervention in obese KOA patients is beneficial for symptomatic improvements. The new information from the thesis is that improvement in clinical symptoms is possible for the majority of patients, independent of their pre-study level of structural damage and measures of joint malfunctioning. The present results also demonstrated that a rapid weight-loss had no association to changes in BML scores and established that changes observed in symptoms and BML scores, following a 16 weeks diet intervention, were not related.

Bartels E.M.,Copenhagen University | Juhl C.B.,University of Southern Denmark | Christensen R.,Copenhagen University | Hagen K.B.,National Advisory Unit for Rehabilitation in Rheumatology | And 4 more authors.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews | Year: 2016

Background: Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterized by joint pain, tenderness, and limitation of movement. At present, no cure is available. Thus only treatment of the person's symptoms and treatment to prevent further development of the disease are possible. Clinical trials indicate that aquatic exercise may have advantages for people with osteoarthritis. This is an update of a published Cochrane review. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of aquatic exercise for people with knee or hip osteoarthritis, or both, compared to no intervention. Search methods: We searched the following databases up to 28 April 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2014), MEDLINE (from 1949), EMBASE (from 1980), CINAHL (from 1982), PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), and Web of Science (from 1945). There was no language restriction. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled clinical trials of aquatic exercise compared to a control group (e.g. usual care, education, social attention, telephone call, waiting list for surgery) of participants with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of the included trials. We analysed the pooled results using standardized mean difference (SMD) values. Main results: Nine new trials met the inclusion criteria and we excluded two earlier included trials. Thus the number of participants increased from 800 to 1190 and the number of included trials increased from six to 13. Most participants were female (75%), with an average age of 68 years and a body mass index (BMI) of 29.4. Osteoarthritis duration was 6.7 years, with a great variation of the included participants. The mean aquatic exercise duration was 12 weeks. We found 12 trials at low to unclear risk of bias for all domains except blinding of participants and personnel. They showed that aquatic exercise caused a small short term improvement compared to control in pain (SMD -0.31, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.15; 12 trials, 1076 participants) and disability (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.17; 12 trials, 1059 participants). Ten trials showed a small effect on quality of life (QoL) (SMD -0.25, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.01; 10 trials, 971 participants). These effects on pain and disability correspond to a five point lower (95% CI three to eight points lower) score on mean pain and mean disability compared to the control group (scale 0 to 100), and a seven point higher (95% CI 0 to 13 points higher) score on mean QoL compared with control group (scale 0 to 100). No included trials performed a radiographic evaluation. No serious adverse events were reported in the included trials with relation to aquatic exercise. Authors' conclusions: There is moderate quality evidence that aquatic exercise may have small, short-term, and clinically relevant effects on patient-reported pain, disability, and QoL in people with knee and hip OA. The conclusions of this review update does not change those of the previous published version of this Cochrane review. © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ge H.-Y.,Center for Sensory Motor Interaction | Wang Y.,Center for Sensory Motor Interaction | Danneskiold-Samsoe B.,The Parker Institute | Graven-Nielsen T.,Center for Sensory Motor Interaction | Arendt-Nielsen L.,Center for Sensory Motor Interaction
Journal of Pain | Year: 2010

The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site was evaluated with manual palpation followed by intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) registration of spontaneous electrical activity to confirm or refute the existence of an MTrP in 30 FMS patients. Overall spontaneous pain intensity and pain pattern were recorded before manual identification of MTrPs. Local and referred pain pattern from active MTrPs were drawn following manual palpation at TP sites. Results: Showed that most of the TP sites are MTrPs. Local and referred pain from active MTrPs reproduced partly the overall spontaneous pain pattern. The total number of active MTrPs (r = .78, P < .0001), but not latent MTrPs (r = -.001, P = .99), was positively correlated with spontaneous pain intensity in FMS. The current study provides first evidence that pain from active MTrPs at TP sites mimics fibromyalgia pain. MTrPs may relate to generalized increased sensitivity in FMS due to central sensitization. Perspective: This article underlies the importance of active MTrPs in FMS patients. Most of the TP sites in FMS are MTrPs. Active MTrPs may serve as a peripheral generator of fibromyalgia pain and inactivation of active MTrPs may thus be an alternative for the treatment of FMS. © 2010 American Pain Society.

Ge H.-Y.,University of Aalborg | Wang Y.,University of Aalborg | Fernandez-de-las-Penas C.,University of Aalborg | Fernandez-de-las-Penas C.,Rey Juan Carlos University | And 3 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2010

Introduction: It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern. The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles.Methods: A spontaneous pain pattern in FM was recorded in 30 FM patients and 30 healthy subjects served as controls. Local and referred pain patterns induced from active (patients) and latent (controls) MTPs were recorded following manual stimulation. The existence of MTPs was confirmed by intramuscular electromyographical registration of spontaneous electrical activity.Results: Local and referred pain areas induced from key active MTPs in FM were larger than pain areas from latent MTPs in healthy controls (P < 0.001), but were similar to the overall spontaneous FM pain area in FM (P > 0.05). The induced pain area was positively associated with current spontaneous pain intensity in FM (P < 0.01). The locations of key active MTPs in FM patients were found to have latent MTPs in healthy subjects. The muscles containing key active MTPs in FM are often observed in the muscles of extensor digitorum, trapezius, infraspinatus in the upper part of the body and of quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius in the lower part of the body.Conclusions: The overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by mechanical stimulation of active MTPs located in different muscles, suggesting that fibromyalgia pain is largely composed of pain arising from muscle pain and spasm. Targeting active MTPs and related perpetuating factors may be an important strategy in FM pain control.Trial registration: ISRCTN ISRCTN43167547. © 2011 Ge et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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