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Heisenberg L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Heisenberg L.,The Oskar Klein Center
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2015

We compute the one-loop quantum corrections to the interactions between the two metrics of the ghost-free massive bigravity. When considering gravitons running in the loops, we show how the structure of the interactions gets destabilized at the quantum level, exactly in the same way as in its massive gravity limit. A priori one might have expected a better quantum behavior, however, the broken diffeomorphism invariance out of the two initial diffeomorphisms in bigravity has similar consequences at the quantum level as the broken diffeomorphism in massive gravity. From lessons of the generated quantum corrections through matter loops we propose yet other types of effective composite metrics to which the matter fields can couple. Among these new effective metrics there might be one or more that could provide interesting phenomenology and important cosmological implications. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Freese K.,University of Michigan | Lisanti M.,Princeton University | Savage C.,The Oskar Klein Center | Savage C.,University of Utah
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

Direct detection experiments, which are designed to detect the scattering of dark matter off nuclei in detectors, are a critical component in the search for the Universe's missing matter. This Colloquium begins with a review of the physics of direct detection of dark matter, discussing the roles of both the particle physics and astrophysics in the expected signals. The count rate in these experiments should experience an annual modulation due to the relative motion of the Earth around the Sun. This modulation, not present for most known background sources, is critical for solidifying the origin of a potential signal as dark matter. The focus is on the physics of annual modulation, discussing the practical formulas needed to interpret a modulating signal. The dependence of the modulation spectrum on the particle and astrophysics models for the dark matter is illustrated. For standard assumptions, the count rate has a cosine dependence with time, with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. Well-motivated generalizations of these models, however, can affect both the phase and amplitude of the modulation. Shown is how a measurement of an annually modulating signal could teach us about the presence of substructure in the galactic halo or about the interactions between dark and baryonic matter. Although primarily a theoretical review, the current experimental situation for annual modulation and future experimental directions is briefly discussed. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Hassan S.F.,The Oskar Klein Center | Rosen R.A.,The Oskar Klein Center
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We analyze the ghost issue in the recently proposed models of nonlinear massive gravity in the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism. We show that, in the entire two-parameter family of actions, the Hamiltonian constraint is maintained at the complete nonlinear level and we argue for the existence of a nontrivial secondary constraint. This implies the absence of the pathological Boulware-Deser ghost to all orders. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the existence of a consistent theory of massive gravity at the complete nonlinear level, in four dimensions. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Schmidt-May A.,The Oskar Klein Center
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2015

In this paper we study the ghost-free bimetric action extended by a recently proposed coupling to matter through a composite metric. The equations of motion for this theory are derived using a method which avoids varying the square-root matrix that appears in the matter coupling. We make an ansatz for which the metrics are proportional to each other and find that it can solve the equations provided that one parameter in the action is fixed. In this case, the proportional metrics as well as the effective metric that couples to matter solve Einstein's equations of general relativity including a matter source. Around these backgrounds we derive the quadratic action for perturbations and diagonalize it into generalized mass eigenstates. It turns out that matter only interacts with the massless spin-2 mode whose equation of motion has exactly the form of the linearized Einstein equations, while the field with Fierz-Pauli mass term is completely decoupled. Hence, bimetric theory, with one parameter fixed such that proportional solutions exist, is degenerate with general relativity up to linear order around these backgrounds. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .

Bergstrom L.,The Oskar Klein Center
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

Recently, an interesting indication for a dark matter signal in the form of a narrow line, or maybe two lines and/or an internal bremsstrahlung feature, has been found in analyses of public data from the Fermi-LAT satellite detector. As recent analyses have also shown that there is little sign of extra contributions to continuum photons, it is natural to investigate leptophilic interacting massive particle models. We show that a model of radiatively generated neutrino masses may have the properties needed to explain the Fermi-LAT structure around 130GeV. This model was proposed some 10 years ago, and predicted a clearly observable γ-ray signal in the Fermi-LAT (then GLAST) detector. Here, we update and improve that analysis, and show as an example that a right-handed neutrino of mass 135GeV should give rise to three conspicuous effects: a broad internal bremsstrahlung bump with maximum around 120GeV, a 2γ line around 135GeV, and a Zγ line at 119.6GeV (neglected in the previous work). These features together give a good fit to the 130GeV structure, given the present energy resolution of the Fermi-LAT data. An attractive feature of the model is that the particle physics properties are essentially fixed, once the relic density and the mass of the right-handed neutrino dark matter particle have been set. Puzzling features of the data at present are a slight displacement of the signal from the galactic center, and a needed boost factor of order 5-15. This presents interesting challenges for numerical simulations including both baryons and dark matter on scales of 100pc, and perhaps a need to go beyond the simplest halo models. With upcoming experiments having better energy resolution, or with future Fermi-LAT data, the double-peak structure with a definite predicted ratio of the strengths of the two lines and the internal bremsstrahlung feature should be seen, if this model is correct. With the planned satellite GAMMA-400, a striking fingerprint of this dark matter candidate should then appear. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Kuhnel F.,The Oskar Klein Center
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

General types of Bose-Einstein condensates are considered. The formation of black-hole analogues is examined for both short- and long-range interactions for arbitrary spatial dimensions greater than 2. The former case includes nonlinear derivative terms plus an inevitable external potential, while the latter one consists solely of gravitylike self-interactions for which intrinsic formation of analogue Schwarzschild-type background space-times is possible. The corresponding geometries are studied, and it is shown how they can be made stable. Their Hawking temperature is estimated, and it is found that in certain setups it can be significantly increased, thus providing better detectability. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Bergstrom L.,The Oskar Klein Center
Annalen der Physik | Year: 2012

The problem of the darkmatter in the universe is reviewed. A short history of the subject is given, and several of the most obvious particle candidates for dark matter are identified. Particular focus is given to weakly interacting, massive particles (WIMPs) of which the lightest supersymmetric particle is an interesting special case and a useful template. The three detection methods: in particle accelerators, by direct detections of scattering in terrestrial detectors, and indirect detection of products from dark matter particle annihilation in the galactic halo, are discussed and their complementarity is explained. Direct detection experiments have revealed some possible indications of a dark matter signal, but the situation is quite confusing at the moment. Very recently, also indirect detection has entered a sensitivity region where some particle candidates could be detectable. Indeed, also here there are some (presently non-conclusive) indications of possible dark matter signals, like an interesting structure at 130 GeV γ-ray energy found in publicly available data from the Fermi-LAT space detector. The future of the field will depend on whether WIMPs are indeed the dark matter, something that may realistically be probed in the next few years. If this exciting scenario turns out to be true, we can expect a host of other, complementary experiments in the coming decade. If it is not true, the time scale and methods for detection will be much more uncertain. © 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Conrad J.,The Oskar Klein Center
Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2015

In this review statistical issues appearing in astrophysical searches for particle dark matter, i.e. indirect detection (dark matter annihilating into standard model particles) or direct detection (dark matter particles scattering in deep underground detectors) are discussed. One particular aspect of these searches is the presence of very large uncertainties in nuisance parameters (astrophysical factors) that are degenerate with parameters of interest (mass and annihilation/decay cross sections for the particles). The likelihood approach has become the most powerful tool, offering at least one well motivated method for incorporation of nuisance parameters and increasing the sensitivity of experiments by allowing a combination of targets superior to the more traditional data stacking. Other statistical challenges appearing in astrophysical searches are to large extent similar to any new physics search, for example at colliders, a prime example being the calculation of trial factors. Frequentist methods prevail for hypothesis testing and interval estimation, Bayesian methods are used for assessment of nuisance parameters and parameter estimation in complex parameter spaces. The basic statistical concepts will be exposed, illustrated with concrete examples from experimental searches and caveats will be pointed out. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bergstrom L.,The Oskar Klein Center
Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2013

The CTA will mean a significant increase of the potential for dark matter detection, compared to presentday detectors like MAGIC, HESS and VERITAS. In particular, if - as it might be indicated from early LHC results - the dark matter sector is heavy, perhaps in the TeV mass range, imaging air Cherenkov arrays have a good opportunity to detect c-rays from dark matter annihilation in the galactic halo, the galactic center, dwarf galaxies, or galaxy clusters. A review of the present situation is given and a few of the ''miracles'' that may enhance chances for detection in CTA are discussed, such as Sommerfeld enhancement and internal bremsstrahlung radiation. A few templates for dark matter are studied, and the importance of the acceptance of the detector at low energies is pointed out. Finally, the idea of a complement to CTA in the form of a high-altitude, low energy threshold dedicated dark matter array DMA, is discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fornasa M.,University of Nottingham | Sanchez-Conde M.A.,The Oskar Klein Center
Physics Reports | Year: 2015

We review the current understanding of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background (DGRB). The DGRB is what remains of the total measured gamma-ray emission after the subtraction of the resolved sources and of the diffuse Galactic foregrounds. It is interpreted as the cumulative emission of sources that are not bright enough to be detected individually. Yet, its exact composition remains unveiled. Well-established astrophysical source populations (e.g. blazars, misaligned AGNs, star-forming galaxies and millisecond pulsars) all represent guaranteed contributors to the DGRB. More exotic scenarios, such as Dark Matter annihilation or decay, may contribute as well. In this review, we describe how these components have been modeled in the literature and how the DGRB can be used to provide valuable information on each of them. We summarize the observational information currently available on the DGRB, paying particular attention to the most recent measurement of its intensity energy spectrum by the Fermi LAT Collaboration. We also discuss the novel analyses of the auto-correlation angular power spectrum of the DGRB and of its cross-correlation with tracers of the large-scale structure of the Universe. New data sets already (or soon) available are expected to provide further insight on the nature of this emission. By summarizing where we stand on the current knowledge of the DGRB, this review is intended both as a useful reference for those interested in the topic and as a means to trigger new ideas for further research. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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