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Ma T.,Beijing Normal University | Ma T.,The Open University of China | Chen B.,Beijing Normal University | Lu C.,Beijing Normal University | Dunlap S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Acta Psychologica | Year: 2015

This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Sun Z.J.,The Open University of China | Dai J.T.,Chinese Naval Aeronautical Engineering Academy
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

For research on comprehensive performance of crankshaft in piston compressor, multi-body dynamics model was built to get mechanical boundary conditions of the crankshaft, and the fatigue strength was verified; Finite element model (FEM) of the crankshaft was established, and the 1st 6 modal of the crankshaft was obtained. The results showed that fatigue strength and dynamic characteristic of the crankshaft was qualified. Theoretical basis could be provided for optimize the crankshaft's structure by fatigue strength and modal analysis. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Wang X.,Beijing Normal University | Jiang G.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang R.,Beijing Normal University | Zhao T.,The Open University of China | Qu Y.,Shandong University of Finance and Economics
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

Large-scale, high quality capital farmland construction, which plays an important role in guaranteeing national food safety, modern agriculture development, and new rural construction, is regarded as one of great national strategies in China. However, studies on how to establish suitable zones for quality facilities in capital farmland construction have not been available until now. With Pinggu District, Beijing, as the study area, this article managed to establish the zoning approach of suitable areas. First, it deployed the multi-factor assessment method, which contained 11 indexes on the aspects of soil quality, site condition, farmland spatial morphology, and agriculture infrastructure to evaluate the natural quality of capital farmland. A second modification method was used to get the capital farmland's comprehensive quality; the effect of location condition, urbanization pressure, and ecological security on capital farmland were considered in this step. According to the definition of quality facilities in capital farmland, capital farmland which is presently in good condition, or which can be transformed into good condition in the future, is the right one for quality facilities. Therefore, capital farmland with the highest ranking after evaluations were those who had already construction zones and had already achieved the construction standard. For some capital farmlands, the limiting factors and their improvement potential to become quality facilities were analyzed. Based on the evaluation and analysis results, some other zones deemed suitable were identified as well. This study shows that regional capital farmland's natural quality displays a declining trend from the plains to the semi-mountain regions, then to the mountain regions. Capital farmland in Mafang Town, Daxingzhuang Town, and Macahngying Town had the highest natural qualities. While mainly affected by the pressure of urbanization development and ecological security, only capital farmland in Daxingzhuang Town and Macahngying Town still remained on the top of the comprehensive quality list. Finally, 6036.98 hm2, or 43.54%, of the total capital farmland is suitable for quality capital farmland construction. And, among them, 1026.70 hm2, gathering in two plain towns, Daxingzhuang Town and Machangying Town, had almost achieved the construction standards. The other 5010.28 hm2, though not good enough at present, can be transformed to reach the construction standards. Capital farmlands inside this category are districts over the plains and semi-mountain areas in the south. According to different regional characteristics, quality facilities in farmland construction should be carried out differently. Farmland in the plains, which had almost reached the construction standards, should develop high-end and modern agriculture. For other regions, strategies that can improve their present limiting factors should be carried out first. The south plain region under high urbanization pressure should pay great attention to balance the development of urbanization and agriculture when constructing these quality facilities. Semi-mountain regions need improve the quality of their capital farmland with the condition of guaranteeing a healthy ecological environment.

Qu Y.,Shandong University of Finance and Economics | Jiang G.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang F.,China Agricultural University | Zhao T.,The Open University of China
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2013

According to calculations from the Ministry of Land and Resources, the area of rural residential land in China is about 270 million acres at present, which is 5 times as much as that of urban construction land. The structure of urban and rural construction land is, therefore, seriously unbalanced. At the same time, there are a series of problems associated with rural residential land in China, such as diversified utilization patterns and inefficient utilization of land resources. How to improve the intensive use of rural residential land and alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand of construction land in urban and rural areas has become an important issue for the sustainable land use. To that end, there have been a variety of policies made for addressing these problems, e.g., connecting an increase in urban construction with a decrease in rural residential land (for short "CUR"), which would be an effective measure to promote the overall efficiency for rural residential land, improve rural production and living conditions, optimize the urban and rural land use structure and alleviate the shortage in land for urban construction. From the view of policy requirements and practice experience, setting up reasonable project zones is the core content of CUR planning. Taking Pinggu District of Beijing as a case, this paper attempts to evaluate the suitability intensity of urban new construction land and old rural residential land demolition using supply-demand theory, differential rent theory, and previous research on rural residential land consolidation potential and CUR zoning., Then, the results of evaluations were fixed respectively by the general plan for the land use and evaluation blocks' space relative concentration and suitability consistency, and the new urban building area and the old rural demolition area were selected. Through the establishment of the spatio-temporal interaction relationship principle and concept model, the CUR project zones were formed by organic combination. There are several results that follow. First, the method can effectively filter out the new building areas of urban construction and the dismantled areas of rural residential land, and then realize the composite joint and Spatio-temporal allocation so as to provide reference for the conditions setting and choice and spatial linkage and scheduling of CUR project zones. Second, overall, Pinggu district belongs to the supply exceeding demand CUR type, the supply potential of rural residential land consolidation potential can meet the demand of town new construction land. Third, the CUR plots are planned to 22 project zones in Pinggu district, including 8 recent project zones and 14 forward project zones in the sequence, and including 17 project zones in individual town and 5 project zones in different town in the space pattern. Fourth, based on the defining CUR project zones, with the reasonable analysis of building the new uses and effective arrangement and setting of depreciation and resettlement of rural residential areas, the paper realizes the integrative target to ensure the economic-social rapid development and promote more intensive utilization of land and increase quantity of cultivated land.

Guo Z.,The Open University of China | Guo Z.,Applied Technology Internet | Liu Y.,Chinese Institute of Scientific and Technical Information
ICIC Express Letters, Part B: Applications | Year: 2015

Scientific literature contains a great number of mathematical formulas, and the contexts of these formulas involve images, symbols and texts that are typical multimodal data. These multi-modal information helps users more fully understand the meaning of mathematics. This research presents a mathematical formula extraction procedure which uses natural language processing techniques to analyze the multi-modal information, and then uses the analyzed data to tag and regulate mathematical formulas. This provides more information than traditional recognition methods in that it can enhance the reproducibility of the structure of a mathematical formula, as well as can help to accurately understand the meaning expressed by the mathematical formula. © 2015 ICIC International.

Gao W.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Bai S.,Northeast Forestry University | Li Q.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Gao C.,Northeast Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarix androssowii (named TaLEA) was transformed into Xiaohei poplar Populus simonii. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11) showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars. © 2013 Gao et al.

Zhang S.,The Open University of China | Wei S.,The Open University of China | Zhou G.,Chamdo Education Sports Bureau in Tibet | Wang L.,The Open University of China
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

In response to the educational needs in promoting development in Tibet, this paper proposes a set of educational path milestones to assist development in Tibet, including essential factors such as the building of a blended teaching environment, organization of teaching teams, development of learning contents and resources, and collection of educational tools. With the completion of the primary path structure, teaching will be carried out in three stages: work mobilization, teacher training, and classroom teaching. The effectiveness of the path has been proven in practice. The cloud classroom system of the Open University of China (OUC) offers stable performance with smooth video communication. The teaching team is diversified in composition with a rational division of labor and close coordination. The learning contents are cutting-edge in subject selection, easily arousing the interest of teachers and students and encouraging participation in the training and giving easy access to the rich learning contents. The teaching tools are guaranteed to be in place. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

PubMed | National Center for Control and Prevention and the Open University of China
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES | Year: 2014

To understand drug resistance prevalence among treatment-failure and treatment-nave HIV-positive individuals in China.We searched five electronic databases (Wanfang, CNKI, CQVIP, SinoMed, and Pubmed) for studies of HIV drug resistance. Random-effects models were carried out to estimate the prevalence of drug resistance among treatment-failure and treatment-nave individuals, respectively.The estimated nationwide rates of HIV drug resistance to any-class drugs among treatment-failure and treatment-nave individuals were 57% (95% CI: 49%-65%) and 3.23% (95% CI: 2.47%-4.07%), respectively. Among the drug classes, the prevalence of resistance to PIs was low (1.45%; 95% CI: 0.73%-2.33%) in treatment-failure individuals, although high rates of resistance to NNRTIs (54%; 95% CI: 45%-63%) and NRTIs (40%; 95% CI: 32%-49%) were found. Resistance to any-class drugs, NNRTIs and NRTIs manifested regional differences, but resistance to PIs did not. Positive correlations were observed between resistance to NNRTIs and NRTIs among treatment-failure and treatment-nave individuals, respectively.The prevalence of HIV drug resistance to NNRTIs and NRTIs among treatment-failure individuals was high. In contrast, the prevalence of drug resistance among treatment-nave individuals was low. The epidemics of drug resistance matched current treatment strategies and interventions in China. Surveillance for HIV drug resistance is necessary to assess the sustainability and durability of current treatment regimens.

Weiming Y.,Beijing University of Technology | Zhuo W.,The Open University of China | Haoxiang H.,Beijing University of Technology
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration | Year: 2011

Reticulated shell structures (RSSs) are characterized as cyclically periodic structures. Mistuning of RSSs will induce structural mode localization. Mode localization has the following two features: some modal vectors of the structure change remarkably when the values of its physical parameters (mass or stiffness) have a slight change; and the vibration of some modes is mainly restricted in some local areas of the structure. In this paper, two quantitative assessment indexes are introduced that correspond to these two features. The first feature is studied through a numerical example of a RSS, and its induced causes are analyzed by using the perturbation theory. The analysis showed that internally, mode localization is closely related to structural frequencies and externally, slight changes of the physical parameters of the structure cause instability to the RSS. A scaled model experiment to examine mode localization was carried out on a Kiewit single-layer spherical RSS, and both features of mode localization are studied. Eight tests that measured the changes of the physical parameters were carried out in the experiment. Since many modes make their contribution in structural dynamic response, six strong vibration modes were tested at random in the experimental analysis. The change and localization of the six modes are analyzed for each test. The results show that slight changes to the physical parameters are likely to induce remarkable changes and localization of some modal vectors in the RSSs. © 2011 Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Li Y.,The Open University of China
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2013

Since MIT OCW evoked a worldwide OER movement, many higher educational institutions have taken actions to consider how to take advantages of the initiatives. The concept of sharing high quality educational resources to promote education equality is widely accepted, but how to maintain sustainable development of OER challenges every university. This paper will review the mainland China's practical exploration with regards to creation and application of OER. It will narrate both government-supported projects and institutional actions to present achievements and problems. Based on some surveys and observations, the author will identify two major influential factors of policy and capacity and try to find out solutions to overcome the obstacles and facilitate the great undertaking. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

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