The Institute of Oncology

Tel Aviv, Israel

The Institute of Oncology

Tel Aviv, Israel
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Laitman Y.,Susanne Levy Gertner Oncogenetics Unit | Vaisman Y.,Susanne Levy Gertner Oncogenetics Unit | Feldman D.,The Meirav Feldshaw Clinic for high risk women | Helpman L.,The Meirav Feldshaw Clinic for high risk women | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2014

The frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is higher in Israel than in almost all other countries. One strategy to reduce the burden of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers is to offer genetic testing followed by risk-reducing surgery (mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy) for mutation carriers. The extent to which Israeli women who carry mutations undergo these surgeries is not well characterized. Israeli women who are BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers and followed at a single high-risk clinic were asked to complete a questionnaire detailing their clinical histories at the time of genetic results disclosure and a follow-up questionnaire was completed 18 or more months thereafter. A total of 205 mutation carriers completed the questionnaires. Of 170 women with no cancer history, 84 (49%) had a risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and 22 (13%) had a risk-reducing mastectomy. Five of 35 (14.3%) women with breast cancer opted for contralateral mastectomy. Approximately one half of Israeli women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation opt for risk-reducing oophorectomy, but the rate of risk-reducing mastectomy is only 13%. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Karlsson P.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Cole B.F.,University of Vermont | Cole B.F.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Chua B.H.,University of Melbourne | And 16 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Rates and risk factors of local, axillary and supraclavicular recurrences can guide patient selection and target for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Patients and methods: Local, axillary and supraclavicular recurrences were evaluated in 8106 patients enrolled in 13 randomized trials. Patients received chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy and mastectomy without radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 15.2 years. Results: Ten-year cumulative incidence for chest wall recurrence of >15% was seen in patients aged <40 years (16.1%), with ≥4 positive nodes (16.5%) or 0-7 uninvolved nodes (15.1%); for supraclavicular failures >10%: ≥4 positive nodes (10.2%); for axillary failures of >5%: aged <40 years (5.1%), unknown primary tumor size (5.2%), 0-7 uninvolved nodes (5.2%). In patients with 1-3 positive nodes, 10-year cumulative incidence for chest wall recurrence of >15% were age <40, peritumoral vessel invasion or 0-7 uninvolved nodes. Age, number of positive nodes and number of uninvolved nodes were significant parameters for each locoregional relapse site. Conclusion: PMRT to the chest wall and supraclavicular fossa is supported in patients with ≥4 positive nodes. With 1-3 positive nodes, chest wall PMRT may be considered in patients aged <40 years, with 0-7 uninvolved nodes or with vascular invasion. The findings do not support PMRT to the dissected axilla. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Fondazione Irccs Instituto Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Instituto Nazionale Tumori Int, Cancer Research Initiatives Foundation, Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences, University of Cologne and 71 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breast cancer research : BCR | Year: 2016

Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood.From 32,295 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we identified 93 TH (0.3%). Cases were defined as TH, and controls were single mutations at BRCA1 (SH1) or BRCA2 (SH2). Matched SH1 controls carried a BRCA1 mutation found in the TH case. Matched SH2 controls carried a BRCA2 mutation found in the TH case. After matching the TH carriers with SH1 or SH2, 91 TH were matched to 9316 SH1, and 89 TH were matched to 3370 SH2.The majority of TH (45.2%) involved the three common Jewish mutations. TH were more likely than SH1 and SH2 women to have been ever diagnosed with breast cancer (BC; p=0.002). TH were more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) than SH2 (p=0.017), but not SH1. Age at BC diagnosis was the same in TH vs. SH1 (p=0.231), but was on average 4.5years younger in TH than in SH2 (p<0.001). BC in TH was more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER) positive (p=0.010) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive (p=0.013) than in SH1, but less likely to be ER positive (p<0.001) or PR positive (p=0.012) than SH2. Among 15 tumors from TH patients, there was no clear pattern of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for BRCA1 or BRCA2 in either BC or OC.Our observations suggest that clinical TH phenotypes resemble SH1. However, TH breast tumor marker characteristics are phenotypically intermediate to SH1 and SH2.

PubMed | University of Cologne, University Of Clermont Ferrand, Vilnius University, Fondazione Instituto Of Oncologia Molecolare Ifom and 103 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15, p = 1.9 x 10(-4) (false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p = 0.043). Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045). Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted pinteraction values > 0.05) for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

Martrat G.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Martrat G.,LHospitalet del Llobregat 08908 | Maxwell C.A.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Maxwell C.A.,LHospitalet del Llobregat 08908 | And 134 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: Proteins encoded by Fanconi anemia (FA) and/or breast cancer (BrCa) susceptibility genes cooperate in a common DNA damage repair signaling pathway. To gain deeper insight into this pathway and its influence on cancer risk, we searched for novel components through protein physical interaction screens.Methods: Protein physical interactions were screened using the yeast two-hybrid system. Co-affinity purifications and endogenous co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to corroborate interactions. Biochemical and functional assays in human, mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans models were carried out to characterize pathway components. Thirteen FANCD2-monoubiquitinylation-positive FA cell lines excluded for genetic defects in the downstream pathway components and 300 familial BrCa patients negative for BRCA1/2 mutations were analyzed for genetic mutations. Common genetic variants were genotyped in 9,573 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers for associations with BrCa risk.Results: A previously identified co-purifying protein with PALB2 was identified, MRG15 (MORF4L1 gene). Results in human, mouse and C. elegans models delineate molecular and functional relationships with BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51 and RPA1 that suggest a role for MRG15 in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Mrg15-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts showed moderate sensitivity to γ-irradiation relative to controls and reduced formation of Rad51 nuclear foci. Examination of mutants of MRG15 and BRCA2 C. elegans orthologs revealed phenocopy by accumulation of RPA-1 (human RPA1) nuclear foci and aberrant chromosomal compactions in meiotic cells. However, no alterations or mutations were identified for MRG15/MORF4L1 in unclassified FA patients and BrCa familial cases. Finally, no significant associations between common MORF4L1 variants and BrCa risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers were identified: rs7164529, P trend= 0.45 and 0.05, P 2df= 0.51 and 0.14, respectively; and rs10519219, P trend= 0.92 and 0.72, P 2df= 0.76 and 0.07, respectively.Conclusions: While the present study expands on the role of MRG15 in the control of genomic stability, weak associations cannot be ruled out for potential low-penetrance variants at MORF4L1 and BrCa risk among BRCA2 mutation carriers. © 2011 Martrat et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Pekar-Zlotin M.,Thoracic Cancer Research and Detection Center | Pekar-Zlotin M.,Tel Aviv University | Hirsch F.R.,Aurora University | Soussan-Gutman L.,Teva Pharmaceutical Industries | And 17 more authors.
Oncologist | Year: 2015

Background. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved method for detecting EML4-ALK rearrangement is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); however, data supporting the use of immunohistochemistry(IHC) for that purpose are accumulating. Previous studies that compared FISH and IHC considered FISH the gold standard, but none compared data with the results of next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. Materials and Methods. We studied FISH and IHC (D5F3 antibody) systematically for EML4-ALK rearrangement in 51 lung adenocarcinoma patients, followed by NGS in case of discordance. Results. Of 51 patients, 4 were positive with FISH (7.8%), and 8 were positive with IHC (15.7%). Three were positive with both. NGS confirmed that four of the five patients who were positive with IHC and negative with FISH were positive for ALK. Two were treated by crizotinib, with progression-free survival of 18 and 6 months. Considering NGS as the most accurate test, the sensitivity and specificity were 42.9% and 97.7%, respectively, for FISH and 100% and 97.7%, respectively, for IHC. Conclusion.The FISH-based method of detecting EML4-ALK rearrangement in lung cancer may miss a significant number of patients who could benefit from targeted ALK therapy. Screening for EML4-ALK rearrangement by IHC should be strongly considered, and NGS is recommended in borderline cases.Two patients who were negative with FISH and positive with IHC were treated with crizotinib and responded to therapy. © AlphaMed Press 2015.

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