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Husebye H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Aune M.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Stenvik J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Samstad E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 14 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2010

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is indispensable for recognition of Gram-negative bacteria. We described a trafficking pathway for TLR4 from the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) to E. coli phagosomes. We found a prominent colocalization between TLR4 and the small GTPase Rab11a in the ERC, and Rab11a was involved in the recruitment of TLR4 to phagosomes in a process requiring TLR4 signaling. Also, Toll-receptor-associated molecule (TRAM) and interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) localized to E. coli phagosomes and internalization of E. coli was required for a robust interferon-β induction. Suppression of Rab11a reduced TLR4 in the ERC and on phagosomes leading to inhibition of the IRF3 signaling pathway induced by E. coli, whereas activation of the transcription factor NF-κB was unaffected. Moreover, Rab11a silencing reduced the amount of TRAM on phagosomes. Thus, Rab11a is an important regulator of TLR4 and TRAM transport to E. coli phagosomes thereby controlling IRF3 activation from this compartment. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Vilming Elgaaen B.,University of Oslo | Olstad O.K.,OUH | Haug K.B.F.,OUH | Brusletto B.,OUH | And 6 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Improved insight into the molecular characteristics of the different ovarian cancer subgroups is needed for developing a more individualized and optimized treatment regimen. The aim of this study was to a) identify differentially expressed miRNAs in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC), clear cell ovarian carcinoma (CCC) and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), b) evaluate selected miRNAs for association with clinical parameters including survival and c) map miRNA-mRNA interactions.Methods: Differences in miRNA expression between HGSC, CCC and OSE were analyzed by global miRNA expression profiling (Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 2.0 Arrays, n = 12, 9 and 9, respectively), validated by RT-qPCR (n = 35, 19 and 9, respectively), and evaluated for associations with clinical parameters. For HGSC, differentially expressed miRNAs were linked to differentially expressed mRNAs identified previously.Results: Differentially expressed miRNAs (n = 78) between HGSC, CCC and OSE were identified (FDR < 0.01%), of which 18 were validated (p < 0.01) using RT-qPCR in an extended cohort. Compared with OSE, miR-205-5p was the most overexpressed miRNA in HGSC. miR-200 family members and miR-182-5p were the most overexpressed in HGSC and CCC compared with OSE, whereas miR-383 was the most underexpressed. miR-205-5p and miR-200 members target epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators, apparently being important in tumor progression. miR-509-3-5p, miR-509-5p, miR-509-3p and miR-510 were among the strongest differentiators between HGSC and CCC, all being significantly overexpressed in CCC compared with HGSC. High miR-200c-3p expression was associated with poor progression-free (p = 0.031) and overall (p = 0.026) survival in HGSC patients. Interacting miRNA and mRNA targets, including those of a TP53-related pathway presented previously, were identified in HGSC.Conclusions: Several miRNAs differentially expressed between HGSC, CCC and OSE have been identified, suggesting a carcinogenetic role for these miRNAs. miR-200 family members, targeting EMT drivers, were mostly overexpressed in both subgroups, among which miR-200c-3p was associated with survival in HGSC patients. A set of miRNAs differentiates CCC from HGSC, of which miR-509-3-5p and miR-509-5p are the strongest classifiers. Several interactions between miRNAs and mRNAs in HGSC were mapped. © 2014 Vilming Elgaaen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sartor O.,Tulane University | Hoskin P.,Mount Vernon Cancer Center Northwood | Hoskin P.,University College London | Bruland T.S.,University of Oslo | Bruland T.S.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2013

In this review, we will focus on one particular class of stromal targeted therapy, i.e. the bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals (BSRs), but will also highlight selected issues related to the bone stroma as these concepts are new, rapidly evolving, and clearly linked to the underlying BSR mechanisms of targeting and action. Herein we review clinical BSR-trials of significance with randomized trials at center stage. Furthermore, we cover a new class of BSR in late clinical development based on bone-stromal targeted alpha-particle irradiation. Lastly, we discuss potential advances in combining BSR with bisphosphonates and/or chemotherapy and emphasize the feasibility of repeated dosing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Thingnes J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Lavelle T.J.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | Hovig E.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | Hovig E.,University of Oslo | Omholt S.W.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The strikingly even color of human skin is maintained by the uniform distribution of melanocytes among keratinocytes in the basal layer of the human epidermis. In this work, we investigated three possible hypotheses on the mechanism by which the melanocytes and keratinocytes organize themselves to generate this pattern. We let the melanocyte migration be aided by (1) negative chemotaxis due to a substance produced by the melanocytes themselves, or (2) positive chemotaxis due to a substance produced by keratinocytes lacking direct physical contact with a melanocyte, or (3) positive chemotaxis due to a substance produced by keratinocytes in a distance-to-melanocytes dependent manner. The three hypotheses were implemented in an agent-based computational model of cellular interactions in the basal layer of the human epidermis. We found that they generate mutually exclusive predictions that can be tested by existing experimental protocols. This model forms a basis for further understanding of the communication between melanocytes and other skin cells in skin homeostasis. © 2012 Thingnes et al.


Lagunova Z.,University of Oslo | Porojnicu A.C.,University of Oslo | Grant W.B.,Nutrition and Health Research Center | Bruland O.,University of Oslo | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

Low levels of vitamin D and excess body weight are both factors associated with increased risk of cancer. The increased risk seems to be proportional to the increase in BMI, and to decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Our earlier investigations suggest that serum 25(OH)D levels decrease with increasing BMI. Although the connection between cancer risk, BMI and vitamin D status might be arbitrary, it has not been discussed in the literature so far. In this study, we analyze data published in current meta-analysis, prospective studies, and systematic reviews on cancer-specific risk attributed to high BMI and low vitamin D status. The contribution of low 25(OH)D levels associated with high BMI to increased cancer risk was calculated for 13 vitamin-D-sensitive cancers with a focus on colorectal and breast cancer as the most frequently studied vitamin-D-sensitive cancer types. Our study suggests that a low vitamin D status may explain at least 20% of the cancer risk attributable to high BMI. The contribution of low 25(OH)D to the increased cancer risk with increasing BMI may be different for different cancer types. Thus, we find 40% for breast cancer, and 26 and 75% for colorectal cancer in men and women, respectively. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Pradhan M.,University of Oslo | Abeler V.M.,University of Oslo | Danielsen H.E.,University of Oslo | Sandstad B.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: We evaluated the prognostic importance of DNA ploidy in stage I and II endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) of the endometrium with a focus on DNA index. Patients and methods: High-resolution DNA ploidy analysis was carried out in tumor material from 937 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I and II EAC of the endometrium. Results: Patients with diploid (N = 728), aneuploid tumor with DNA index ≤1.20 (N = 118), aneuploid tumors with DNA index >1.20 (N = 39) and tetraploid tumor (N = 52) had 5-year recurrence rates 8%, 14%, 20% and 12%, respectively. Patients with aneuploid tumor with DNA index >1.20 had a poorer 5-year progression-free survival (67%) and overall survival (72%) compared with the patients with aneuploid tumor with DNA index ≤1.20 (81% and 89%, respectively). Aneuploid tumors with DNA index ≤1.20 relapsed mainly in the vagina and pelvis, whereas aneuploid tumors with DNA index >1.20 relapsed predominantly outside pelvis. Conclusions: The recurrence risk for the patients with aneuploid tumor is higher than the patients with diploid tumor in EAC of the endometrium. Based on DNA index with cut-off 1.20, aneuploid tumors can be separated into two subgroups with different recurrence pattern and survival. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.


Freitag J.,University of Marburg | Lanver D.,Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology | Bohmer C.,University of Marburg | Schink K.O.,University of Marburg | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2011

Differentiation of hyphae into specialized infection structures, known as appressoria, is a common feature of plant pathogenic fungi that penetrate the plant cuticle. Appressorium formation in U. maydis is triggered by environmental signals but the molecular mechanism of this hyphal differentiation is largely unknown. Infectious hyphae grow on the leaf surface by inserting regularly spaced retraction septa at the distal end of the tip cell leaving empty sections of collapsed hyphae behind. Here we show that formation of retraction septa is critical for appressorium formation and virulence in U. maydis. We demonstrate that the diaphanous-related formin Drf1 is necessary for actomyosin ring formation during septation of infectious hyphae. Drf1 acts as an effector of a Cdc42 GTPase signaling module, which also consists of the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Don1 and the Ste20-like kinase Don3. Deletion of drf1, don1 or don3 abolished formation of retraction septa resulting in reduced virulence. Appressorium formation in these mutants was not completely blocked but infection structures were found only at the tip of short filaments indicating that retraction septa are necessary for appressorium formation in extended infectious hyphae. In addition, appressoria of drf1 mutants penetrated the plant tissue less frequently. © 2011 Freitag et al.


Sioud M.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Small interfering RNA (siRNAs), the main effector of RNA interference (RNAi), are now routinely used to assess gene function, both in vitro and in vivo, and many innovative screens have been reported on the use of RNAi to identify potential drug targets. Despite several technical advances, however, there are still many challenges in determining the ideal design of siRNA sequence, the activation of the immune system, off-target effects, and competition with endogenous microRNAs for cellular miRNA-processing machinery. Therefore, the translation of RNAi technology into the clinic depends on resolving these challenges. This chapter summarizes recent progress in siRNA design, sensing by the immune system, and discusses some of the promising approaches that are currently being explored in separating siRNA unwanted effects from gene silencing.


Wiig J.N.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | Larsen S.G.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | Dueland S.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | Flatmark K.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | Giercksky K.E.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital
Colorectal Disease | Year: 2011

Aim This study investigated whether total mesorectal excision (TME), when carried out at the original operation for rectal cancer, influenced the effectiveness of subsequent salvage treatment for pelvic recurrence. Method Between September 1990 and January 2006, 124 patients underwent radiotherapy and salvage surgery at the Norwegian Radium Hospital for locally recurrent rectal cancer without known distant metastases. Most of the primary operations had been performed at other hospitals: 62 patients had undergone a non-TME procedure (most operations in this group of patients were carried out before 1994); and 62 patients had undergone a TME procedure (all operations in this group of patients were carried out after 1992). In the TME group, 17 patients also received radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Results A lower proportion of primary abdominoperineal resection and more sensitizing chemotherapy seemed to be to the advantage of the TME group, while a higher frequency of intra-operative radiotherapy might be beneficial in the non-TME group. The 5-year survival and R0 stage achievement were 30/24% and 44/40% for non-TME/TME groups. The local re-recurrence rates were nearly identical, at around 50%, for both groups. There was no change in R stage over time. Conclusion A primary operation which includes TME does not reduce the effectiveness of subsequent salvage treatment for locally recurrent rectal cancer. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.


Magnussen G.I.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | Holm R.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | Emilsen E.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | Rosnes A.K.R.,The Norwegian Radium Hospital | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Notoriously resistant malignant melanoma is one of the most increasing forms of cancer worldwide; there is thus a precarious need for new treatment options. The Wee1 kinase is a major regulator of the G2/M checkpoint, and halts the cell cycle by adding a negative phosphorylation on CDK1 (Tyr15). Additionally, Wee1 has a function in safeguarding the genome integrity during DNA synthesis. To assess the role of Wee1 in development and progression of malignant melanoma we examined its expression in a panel of paraffin-embedded patient derived tissue of benign nevi and primary- and metastatic melanomas, as well as in agarose-embedded cultured melanocytes. We found that Wee1 expression increased in the direction of malignancy, and showed a strong, positive correlation with known biomarkers involved in cell cycle regulation: Cyclin A (p<0.0001), Ki67 (p<0.0001), Cyclin D3 (p = 0.001), p21Cip1/WAF1 (p = 0.003), p53 (p = 0.025). Furthermore, high Wee1 expression was associated with thicker primary tumors (p = 0.001), ulceration (p = 0.005) and poor disease-free survival (p = 0.008). Transfections using siWee1 in metastatic melanoma cell lines; WM239WTp53, WM45.1MUTp53 and LOXWTp53, further support our hypothesis of a tumor promoting role of Wee1 in melanomas. Whereas no effect was observed in LOX cells, transfection with siWee1 led to accumulation of cells in G1/S and S phase of the cell cycle in WM239 and WM45.1 cells, respectively. Both latter cell lines displayed DNA damage and induction of apoptosis, in the absence of Wee1, indicating that the effect of silencing Wee1 may not be solely dependent of the p53 status of the cells. Together these results reveal the importance of Wee1 as a prognostic biomarker in melanomas, and indicate a potential role for targeted therapy, alone or in combination with other agents. © 2012 Magnussen et al.

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